Pandora Report 9.28.2018

Happy Friday biodefense gurus! October is right around the corner, which means the flu vaccine will be available soon. Make sure to get vaccinated this season, as the CDC just announced that 80,000 people died of the flu during the 2017/2018 season, which is the highest death toll in 40 years.

GMU Global Health Security Ambassador
We’re excited to announce that two graduate students from the Schar biodefense program will be attending the 5th GHSA Ministerial Meeting in Bali, Indonesia. The two students, Annette Prieto and Saskia Popescu, will observe the Global Health Security Agenda in action and the the GHSA 2024 planning. Following their attendance in early November, we’ll be providing a report out on the events. Meet our two GMU Global Health Security Ambassadors – Annette Prieto has a background in Microbiology and Immunology and is currently a Biodefense student in the Master’s Program here at George Mason University. Before coming to George Mason, Annette focused on medical Microbiology at the University of Miami before moving into the laboratory and becoming a Teacher’s Assistant. From there, Annette became an Adjunct Instructor at Daytona State College and taught for a year before entering the Biodefense Program. Annette is also a part of the Next Generation Global Health Security Network. Saskia Popescu is a biodefense doctoral candidate at GMU and infection preventionist. She worked as an infection preventionist during the Dallas Ebola cluster, a 2015 measles outbreak, and is an external expert for the ECDC. She is a 2017 ELBI fellow and trained infectious disease epidemiologist. Saskia’s research focuses on the utilization of infection control in the U.S. healthcare system and it’s impact on biodefense. Make sure to check back in the weeks following their trip to learn about their experiences at the ministerial meeting.

Why Poor Pandemic Preparedness is Deadly
Ebola response efforts in the DRC are struggling and were suspended earlier this week, after violence between rebels and armed forces. While outbreak response in Beni have resumed, events like these are a prime example of why outbreaks can quickly spread beyond control and ultimately emphasize the need for pandemic preparedness. Drs. Tom Inglesby and Eric Toner from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security recently discussed the importance of investing in biopreparedness and how their Clade-X tabletop revealed many of the existing weaknesses. “Could a natural or man-made pandemic happen today? Yes. New lethal viruses are emerging from nature, and dizzying developments in biotechnology mean that biological weapons no longer are the sole province of a few state-sponsored programs — a manufactured pandemic could be unleashed by a rogue regime or by terrorists utilizing one of the thousands of laboratories around the world capable of making a dangerous pathogen. If the worst-case scenario unfolds, strong pandemic preparedness planning would save millions of lives. But progress is possible only with effective leadership.”

Rebuilding Health Security in the Wake of Ebola
GMU Biodefense graduate student Stephen Taylor discusses the latest talk from Georgetown University on global health security following the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak. “In the midst of this disaster, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control turned to health security experts at the Georgetown Center for Global Health Science and Security to support the expansion and augmentation of the Guinean public health infrastructure.  Dr. Alpha Barry, Dr. Erin Sorrell, Dr. Claire Standley, and Ms. Aurelia Attal-Juncqua supported on-the-ground efforts to develop and implement improved health security policy that would make Guinea more resilient against future infectious disease outbreaks.  The Guinean government’s priorities for capacity and capability building were to prevent further outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, improve the capacity of surveillance laboratories and capabilities of the healthcare workforce to identify outbreaks, and to better respond to outbreaks by streamlining and coordinating emergency response operations.  On September 14th, 2018, as part of its Global Health Security Seminar Series, Georgetown University hosted a panel discussion of Dr Sorrell, Dr. Standley, and Ms. Attal-Juncqua on their efforts in Guinea.”

 The AMR Challenge
The United Nations (UN) General Assembly was held this week and one particular topic captured our attention – antimicrobial stewardship and a new initiative to combat resistance. “The AMR Challenge is a way for governments, private industries, and non-governmental organizations worldwide to make formal commitments that further the progress against antimicrobial resistance. The challenge encourages a One Health approach, recognizing that the health of people is connected to the health and animals and the environment. The AMR Challenge launches at the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in September 2018. Organizations can make commitments beginning September 25, 2018 until September 2019. CDC will feature commitments throughout the year. At the 2019 UN General Assembly, antimicrobial resistance will continue to be a priority topic for world leaders.” Within the Challenge, there are commitments to tracking and sharing data, reducing the spread of resistant germs through infection prevention and control, improving antibiotic use, decreasing antibiotics and resistance in the environment, and investing in vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics.

NASEM – Review & Assessment of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes
How do we protect the Earth from contamination following space exploration? How can we avoid bringing microorganisms from Earth to other planets and solar system bodies? The latest NASEM report discusses how scientists tackle these issues and implement such policies. As you read the text, you’ll also see one of the Center for Health Security’s ELBI fellows in there – Betsy Pugel of NASA. “For decades, the scientific, political, and economic conditions of space exploration converged in ways that contributed to effective development and implementation of planetary protection policies at national and international levels. However, the future of space exploration faces serious challenges to the development and implementation of planetary protection policy. The most disruptive changes are associated with (1) sample return from, and human missions to, Mars; and (2) missions to those bodies in the outer solar system possessing water oceans beneath their icy surfaces.” This gives new insight into a field we may not be considering in health security – what about interstellar health security?

The Spanish Flu, Epidemics, and the Turn to Biomedical Responses
We already discussed the impact of poor pandemic preparedness, but what about biomedical efforts? A recent article from AJPH discusses the role of the 1918/1919 pandemic in bringing biomedical approaches to the forefront of outbreak response. “A century ago, nonpharmaceutical interventions such as school closings, restrictions on large gatherings, and isolation and quarantine were the centerpiece of the response to the Spanish Flu. Yet, even though its cause was unknown and the science of vaccine development was in its infancy, considerable enthusiasm also existed for using vaccines to prevent its spread. This desire far exceeded the scientific knowledge and technological capabilities of the time. Beginning in the early 1930s, however, advances in virology and influenza vaccine development reshaped the relative priority given to biomedical approaches in epidemic response over traditional public health activities. Today, the large-scale implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions akin to the response to the Spanish Flu would face enormous legal, ethical, and political challenges, but the enthusiasm for vaccines and other biomedical interventions that was emerging in 1918 has flourished.”

HHS Sponsors TPOXX
Speaking of biomedical measures…the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) just announced its sponsorship of a new formulation of the world’s first approved smallpox treatment – TPOXX. This purchase will be used for the Strategic National Stockpile and will work with Siga Technologies to develop an IV formulation of the drug. “Purchase of TPOXX in pill form and development of an IV formulation will be completed under a contract between Siga Technologies and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. BARDA will use funding from the Project BioShield Special Reserve Fund. The contract can be extended for up to 10 years and $629 million if necessary to complete development of the IV formulation.”

NASEM – Engaging the Private-Sector Health Care System in Building Capacity to Respond to Threats to the Public’s Health and National Security
Don’t miss the latest NASEM report on the intersection of preparedness and healthcare. From Ebola patients to natural disasters, and even terrorism, the private-sector healthcare system plays a critical role in response. “As a result, disasters often require responses from multiple levels of government and multiple organizations in the public and private sectors. This means that public and private organizations that normally operate independently must work together to mount an effective disaster response. To identify and understand approaches to aligning health care system incentives with the American public’s need for a health care system that is prepared to manage acutely ill and injured patients during a disaster, public health emergency, or other mass casualty event, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a 2-day public workshop on March 20 and 21, 2018. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.”

USDA ARS 5th International Biosafety & Biocontainment Symposium
ABSA has just announced this event being held on February 11-14, 2019 in Baltimore, Maryland. “The focus of the symposium will be Biorisk and Facility Challenges in Agriculture. Seven professional development courses will address topics including life science security, facility maintenance and operational issues, agricultural risk assessment, emergency response and preparedness for livestock disease outbreaks, waste management, and strategic leadership. Courses will be held on Monday, February 11. There will be 2 1/2 days of scientific presentations covering various topics including; governance updates, design methodologies, deferred maintenance, rabies, occ health laboratory to the field, gene editing, risk management and communication, and many others. The poster and networking reception will be held on Wednesday, February 13, attendees will have the opportunity to meet with presenters and discuss their presentations. Exhibits showcasing the latest biosafety, biosecurity, and biocontainment products and services will be open February 12-13.”

Next Generation Biosecurity Webinar 
Don’t miss this webinar today, Friday 9.28, at 11am (CDT, Mexico City). Hosted by Next Generation GHSA, this webinar will be with Luis Alberto Ochoa Carrera, Coordinator of Biosafety and Biochemistry of the GHSN and Coordinator of the Biosafety Laboratory Level 3 of the National Reference Laboratory (InDRE) of Mexico.

Stories You May Have Missed:

  • Airplanes and Airports – Hubs for Germs: GMU biodefense doctoral candidate Saskia Popescu discusses the latest on germ transmission during air travel. “Most people have a general sense that air travel tends to involve exposure to germs. Whether it’s through the thousands of people we will come into contact with, the sick person next to us on the plane, or the dirty surfaces, many of us get a sense of unease knowing there is a real chance we may arrive at our destination with a microscopic companion.”

 

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