ASM Biothreats 2018

We’re the source for all things biodefense and the annual ASM Biothreats conference is no different. GMU’s biodefense program was fortunate to send several students to attend and report back on some of the enlightening and captivating sessions during the biothreat event. Below you’ll find several commentaries from each student who attended – happy reading!

Mariam Awad – Biodefense MS Student
Mariam is a graduate student with a background in biochemistry and foreign affairs and is reporting on breakout sessions on the international landscape of biodefense and artificial intelligence for biosurveillance. “During this talk, speakers addressed both bilateral and multilateral research projects in various regions around the world led by various US agencies including State Department and defense threat reduction agency.” Next, Awad discusses “how we can utilize machine learning for creating situational awareness of both intentional and naturally occurring biological incidents. One of the current hurdles in conducting biosurvillance for Bacillus Anthracis and pandemic influenza include lack of tools that can rapidly structure, integrate and analyze large, disparate data with little human exposure and intervention.”

Jessica Smrekar – Biodefense MS Student
Jessica has a background in biology and biotechnology and is giving us insight into one of the keynote speakers, Dr. Ilaria Capua, and her frank talk about the relationship between the government and science. “This particular keynote described her story of shame, falsification, and the effects populism on the scientific community. She began by stating this was the hardest speech she has ever had to give and that we would understand why by the end of it.  She then set the scene by speaking of the turmoil of the modern age and how this age has brought along hard times for everyone.” Next, Smrekar evaluates one of the more controversial discussions – the future of P3C0, noting that “A large portion of the session was dedicated to analyzing the risk of gain of function studies with PPPs and how these risks compare to the benefits from such research.”

Anthony Falzarano – Biodefense MS Student
Anthony, having just attended the GHSA Kampala summit, delves into global approaches to threat reduction through OneHealth. “This new concept that we must consider all the health-related disciplines to truly understand and address the challenges faced in public health has grown to be the backbone of forward-thinking health initiatives like the Global Health Security Agenda.” Next, Falzarano is also giving his perspective on the panel on the international landscape of biodefense. “While these threats may be from natural or man-made infectious disease events, they all share a similar connection in that pathogenic diseases do not respect borders or political lines. This session featured speakers from the United States Department of State, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center. These entities are working both together and in parallel to address the biosecurity risks posed against our country and to the world.”

Justin Hurt – Biodefense PhD Student
Justin is providing us with a detailed account of the breakout session on planning for the future and the DoD programs to help inform biodefense policy. “One such player that has not only significant expertise, but also a robust research and development capability in countering biological threats is the Department of Defense (DoD). Joined by its partner agencies in the national security enterprise, the DoD leads a wide-ranging portfolio of projects geared toward preventing, preparing for, and mitigating the possibility of a future biological attack or public health crisis.”

Stephen Taylor – Biodefense MS Student
Stephen, also a GHSA Kampala Summit attendee, is delving into the talk from DARPA and BARDA researchers regarding prevention planning against the next pandemic. “Justin Yang, a project officer at BARDA, spoke about BARDA’s vision to shrink the gap between patients and treatment, both physically and temporally. For instance, U.S. healthcare providers have access to a myriad of influenza diagnostics. Using these tools in a timely manner, however, is problematic.” Stephen also provides an overview of Dr. Robert Kadlec’s keynote address. “The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, though in retreat, still poses a multi-state threat in the Middle East.  Additionally, pandemics such as Ebola and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza have become increasingly common in our interconnected world.  Dr. Kadlec also acknowledged that global climate change will continue to contribute to unpredictable and intense weather events with potentially disastrous consequences.  The post-Cold War days of peppermint, ponies, and unicorns, Dr. Kadlec emphasized, were short-lived.”

 

Pandora Report: 4.20.2018

Summer Workshop on Pandemics, Bioterrorism, and Global Health Security: From Anthrax to Zika
The early-bird registration discount deadline is fast approaching, so make sure you’re signed up for the workshop on all things health security from July 18-20! Whether it’s the 2001 anthrax letter attacks, SARS and avian influenza, Ebola in West Africa, or dual-use research of concern, we’ll be covering it all in this three-day workshop. Where else can you mingle with some of the top minds in the field, engage with other passionate health security professionals, and learn about the latest issues in biodefense?

80,000 Hours Interview With Dr. Tom Inglesby – Careers & Policies That Can Prevent Global Catastrophic Biological Risks
If you’re not listening to the 80,000 Hours podcast, make sure to add it to your list. This is a wonderful podcast on making the right career choices and lucky us, they’re covering global health security jobs. In October, NTI’s Dr. Beth Cameron spoke about fighting pandemics and the challenge of preparing an entire country. Cameron spoke about the current state of American health security, what we’ve learned, new technologies, and more. This week, they spoke with Dr. Tom Inglesby from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security on how passionate health security gurus can pursue a career in the field, the top jobs, worrisome scientific breakthroughs, etc. You’ll even catch Dr. Inglesby discuss PhD programs and advisors in the field, in which he names GMU’s very own Dr. Gregory Koblentz! During his talk, Inglesby notes that “I don’t think it’s a good approach to think about it [catastrophic biological risk] as zero sum with other epidemic problems and here’s why: I think in many cases it’s gonna be similar communities that are thinking about these problems. I don’t think it’s likely, even if we really decided to get very serious as a world, I don’t think it’s likely that there will be a community solely dedicated. I don’t want to say never, because it could happen, but I don’t think it’s likely that there will be a robust enduring community of professionals that would only, solely be dedicated to global catastrophic risk, biological risks alone.”

An Afternoon with ASPR – Dr. Robert Korch and Dr. Dana Perkins
GMU Biodefense MS student Anthony Falzarano is reporting on his time at the National Academies monthly series on biological, chemical, and health security issues. “This luncheon – consisting of an open forum session with a two-member panel and a moderator – featured Dr. George W. Korch and Dr. Dana Perkins, both from the Department of Health and Human Services office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). Drawing from their current roles with ASPR as well as their illustrious careers and vast experiences, two presenters made for a compelling afternoon discussing health security issues and the work being done by ASPR to prepare for and address them.” Make sure to read his report-out on this luncheon to learn Dr. Korch’s favorite priorities for ASPR!

Chemical Weapons Attack on Douma – Update
Last Saturday, 105 missiles were fired against three Syrian chemical weapons facilities in a joint effort by the U.S., UK, and France. While this is unlikely to have completely removed Assad’s chemical weapons capabilities, many are wondering how effective the airstrike truly is. “‘This is now part of their standard combat doctrine’,” said Gregory Koblentz, a chemical weapons expert at the Schar School of Policy and Government at George Mason University. The attack April 7 that triggered the U.S.-led retaliatory strikes forced the surrender of a rebel group holed up in a suburb of Damascus. ‘It changed the course of battle on the ground,’ Koblentz said.” Social media is also increasingly playing a large role in the U.S. and Russian dialogue of the attacks. “The heavy reliance of President Donald Trump’s administration on publicly available information marks a shift from his predecessor’s, which insisted on obtaining physical evidence of chemical weapons use with an established chain of custody before considering the use of force. It also highlights the difficulties Western intelligence agencies have faced in obtaining such evidence — blood, hair, or soil samples — from the Damascus suburb of Douma in the days following the April 7 chemical weapons attack that left nearly 50 dead and hundreds wounded.” The Director-General of the OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons) recently provided an update on the fact-finding mission (FFM) in Douma, which you can find here. Challenges were found in OPCW actually getting into the site. “The United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) has made the necessary arrangements with the Syrian authorities to escort the team to a certain point and then for the escort to be taken over by the Russian Military Police. However, the UNDSS preferred to first conduct a reconnaissance visit to the sites, which took place yesterday. FFM team members did not participate in this visit.On arrival at Site 1, a large crowd gathered and the advice provided by the UNDSS was that the reconnaissance team should withdraw. At Site 2, the team came under small arms fire and an explosive was detonated. The reconnaissance team returned to Damascus.” “The delay in the inspectors’ arrival, 10 days after the attack, will raise fresh concerns over the relevance of the OPCW investigation and possible evidence-tampering. The efforts to investigate the attack, which has been blamed on Bashar al-Assad’s government and sparked a joint operation by the US, Britain and France to bomb chemical weapons facilities near Damascus, has been repeatedly delayed despite Syria’s claim to have established full control over Douma and the surrounding region.” Koblentz notes that “Douma has been completely surrounded by the Syrian government and has been subject to intensive bombardment as part of the regime offensive since February,. The problem is that the territory is now occupied by the Syrian government and the crime scene is no longer secure. It doesn’t lend itself to a credible investigation. It’s like the criminals came back to the scene of the crime and they can do whatever they want with the evidence before the cops show up.”

CRISPR, Avengers, & Super Soldiers, Oh My! 
As we get closer to the release of Marvel’s Avengers: Infinity War, discussions about super soldiers and genome editing are growing like a mean, green, fighting machine. A frequent topic of conversation during the December 2017 Meeting of States Parties (at least among the ELBI attendees!), Matt Shearer posed the question – is Captain America a biological weapon? What about the other Avengers though – like Hawkeye, who is one of the few “normal” humans in the group? “Hawkeye’s accuracy with a bow and arrow is heavily dependent on his eyesight, which is clearly more advanced than the average human’s. As far as we know, his genome has not been intentionally altered, leading us to believe that Hawkeye has inherited his extraordinary eyesight from his parents. This theory is strengthened by the fact in the Marvel comic books, Barney Barton, Clint’s brother, is also an accomplished archer thanks to his enhanced vision. Perhaps Hawkeye’s advanced eyesight is the result of thousands of years of genetic evolution in the form of adaptation, genetic drift, or mutation of his ancestor’s DNA.” Writers at Synthego decided to look at which genes would need CRISPR modification to improve vision – like targeting specific opsin genes OPN1SW, OPN1MW, etc.

Survey – Most Americans Favor More Funding to Support Biosecurity Capabilities
A new survey by Alliance for Biosecurity has found that public confidence in US preparedness to address biosecurity has dropped. “Nationally, 73% of the 1,612 Americans surveyed say they would have a favorable reaction ‘if Congress decided to increase the budget this year for developing preventive measures for biological and chemical threats.’ How elected officials act on biosecurity issues is important enough to affect voters at the ballot box, according to the survey. A majority of Americans – 52% –  say they are more likely to support their elected representative if that representative is ‘actively engaged in promoting and supporting biosecurity.’ Similarly, 52% say they would become less likely to re-elect a representative who voted AGAINST providing additional funding to the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). Only 20% say voting against the additional funding would make them more likely to re-elect that representative.” The survey found that only 31% of Americans are confident in our national preparedness, which is a drop from the 50% found in a March 2016 survey.

Curious 2018
Are you planning on being in Germany July 16-18? Don’t miss out on the Curious2018 Future Insight conference in Darmstadt. “The Curious2018 Future Insight conference is a world-renowned event around the future of science & technology and its application to build a better world for humanity. The best minds in science, technology, and entrepreneurship will come together to make great things happen and join forces to realize the dreams of a better tomorrow.” Topics will include healthy lives, materials & solutions, life reimagined (synthetic biology!), vibrant digital, and bright future.

Foodborne Illness Outbreaks – Romaine Lettuce and Eggs
Cobb salads may be taking a beating this week as two main ingredients are setting food epidemiologists into overtime with E.coli and Salmonella outbreaks. Three days ago, it was announced that the source of a 16-state E. coli O157:H7 outbreak, had been identified as a romaine lettuce farm in Yuma, AZ. The CDC recently announced that 53 people have been sickened and the common ingredient amongst them was chopped romaine lettuce, which was traced back to the Yuma region. If that wasn’t bad enough, over 206 million eggs have been recalled across 9 states due to a Salmonella outbreak linked back to eggs from a farm in Hyde County, N.C., and distributed by an Indiana company. “The FDA said the voluntary recall is the result of 22 illnesses reported in East Coast states, which led to extensive interviews and an inspection of the Hyde County farm. The outbreak involves the Salmonella Braenderup subtype. Federal and state officials have been investigating the outbreak since early March.”

Stories You May Have Missed:

  • Holding Russia Accountable in Salisbury– During this week, the UN Security Council and the Executive Council of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) met to discuss the most recent OPCW findings. Per the U.S. State Department – “The OPCW’s independent report, released last week, confirms the UK lab analysis regarding the identity of the chemical used in Salisbury. We applaud the OPCW’s expeditious support and technical efforts to uncover the facts. We fully support the UK and the need for today’s special meetings of the OPCW Executive Council and the UN Security Council to discuss the chemical weapons attack in Salisbury and the OPCW’s detailed independent analysis.”
  • Apartment Mice: Harborers of Disease? “In a study today in mBio, the researchers report that a genetic analysis of droppings collected from house mice in New York City detected several types of bacteria capable of causing gastrointestinal disease, including Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. They also found genes that confer resistance to fluoroquinolones, beta-lactam antibiotics, and methicillin. Overall, more than a third of mice carried at least one potentially pathogenic bacterium, and nearly a quarter carried at least one antibiotic resistance gene.”

Thank you for reading the Pandora Report. If you would like to share any biodefense news, events, or stories, please contact our Editor Saskia Popescu (biodefense@gmu.edu) or via Twitter: @PandoraReport

An Afternoon with ASPR – Dr. Robert Korch and Dr. Dana Perkins

Anthony Falzarano, GMU Biodefense graduate student 

Last week, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine held another event in their monthly series on biological, chemical and health security issues. This luncheon – consisting of an open forum session with a two-member panel and a moderator – featured Dr. George W. Korch and Dr. Dana Perkins, both from the Department of Health and Human Services office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). Drawing from their current roles with ASPR as well as their illustrious careers and vast experiences, two presenters made for a compelling afternoon discussing health security issues and the work being done by ASPR to prepare for and address them. Continue reading “An Afternoon with ASPR – Dr. Robert Korch and Dr. Dana Perkins”

Pandora Report 4.13.2018

Welcome to your Friday biodefense fix! Have you registered for the summer workshop on pandemics, bioterrorism, and global health security? Don’t miss the chance to learn from the top minds in the field on everything from anthrax to Zika.

Blue Ribbon Study Panel Meeting – Transnational Biological Threats & Global Security
On April 25th, the Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense will be hosting a meeting regarding transnational biological threats. From 10am to 3pm, you can attend (or watch live!) this event. “Biological threats to the Nation increase continuously, recognizing no borders. As emerging and reemerging naturally occurring diseases continue to spread throughout the world, terrorists continue to pursue biological weapons to add to their arsenal, and nation states are establishing new and reinvigorating old offensive biological weapons programs. This meeting of the Study Panel, chaired by former Senator Joe Lieberman and Governor Tom Ridge, will provide the Study Panel with a better understanding of: Current transnational biological threats, Homeland defense and security in the global context, Global security efforts to combat these threats, International public health security efforts; and the need to elevate global health security as a national and global priority”.

Chemical Weapons Attack in Syria
This past weekend saw a horrific suspected chemical weapons attack upon the rebel-held Syrian city of Douma. Victims began seeking medical care on Saturday evening with the telling signs of chemical weapons exposure. Rough estimates are that 500 people sought medical care related to the attack and the WHO has demanded “immediate unhindered access to the area to provide care to those affected, to assess the health impacts, and to deliver a comprehensive public health response.” Healthcare workers on the ground have reported patients with symptoms, “which included frothing at the mouth, suffocation, dilated and constricted pupils, corneal burns, central cyanosis – a blue tinge to the skin – and a chlorine-like odour, were consistent with exposure to an organophosphorus compound. Sarin gas is such a chemical”. Sadly, the use of chemical weapons is becoming increasingly common in Syria, as the Assad regime has revealed an appreciation for the abhorrent tactic. “Gregory D. Koblentz, the director of George Mason University’s Biodefense Graduate Program, said the attack appeared to reflect how much the clout of U.S. policy has faded in Syria. ‘Assad is less concerned about Beltway politics, less concerned by who is in the White House. His calculation is based on whether it will help his chances in achieving gains on the ground, or punishing the rebels,’ he said.” “The possibility of western intervention against Assad was heightened on Tuesday after Russia and its western opponents, the US, UK and France, respectively vetoed duelling resolutions at the UN security council over the latest atrocity. The UN high commissioner for human rights said the world must react to the use of chemical weapons or risk dire consequences. ‘After decades when we thought we had successfully outlawed the use of chemical and biological weapons, the world is sitting idly by while their use is becoming normalised in Syria,’ said Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein. ‘This collective shrug to yet another possible use of one of the most ghastly weapons ever devised by man is incredibly dangerous’.” What is to be done? President Trump’s recent Twitter activity points to planned use of “smart” missiles, but U.S. Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said on Wednesday that the U.S. is still assessing intelligence about the suspected chemical weapons attack. The OPCW (Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons) is set to meet on April 16th to discuss the “alleged use of chemical weapons” in Syria. The OPCW team is also currently en-route to Syria for investigation into the suspected attack. “‘I think it looks pretty clear that a chlorine weapon was used’ on the civilians, said Charles Duelfer, former deputy head of the U.N. inspections team in Iraq, in an interview with NPR.”

Who Owns Smallpox?: The Nagoya Protocol and Smallpox Virus Retention
This week the Center for the Study of WMD held a talk on smallpox stockpiles. Spotlight speaker Michelle Rourke discussed her article regarding the convention on biological diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. If you missed the event, GMU biodefense graduate student Morasa Shaker was able to attend and has provided a detailed account of the day. “While the case can be made that endangered species pose an intrinsic value to the world’s genetic diversity, it is has proven less feasible to make the same case for a virus, specifically the variola virus—the causative agent of smallpox. Nevertheless, Michelle Rourke, a Fulbright scholar at Georgetown University’s O’Neill Institute for Domestic and Global Health Law, led an in-depth educational seminar organized by the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction to support that very case—the smallpox virus is worthy of our conservation efforts.”

Controlling Dangerous Biological Research
Filippa Lentzos is asking a question we’ve been trying to avoid for a while – how can we control biological research that is inherently dangerous? The desire to advance technologically and in the life sciences pushes researchers and defense programs to invest in biological sciences, like synthetic biology. Just as we make gains in such research, we also worry that adversaries could use the same technologies against us. “Washington, Moscow, and other governments say they are focused only on ‘defensive’ biosecurity activities, but there is a fine line between ‘defensive’ and ‘offensive’ in this realm, and the alarming military focus on synthetic biology may cause people to wonder if there is some way to control the weaponization of biology.” Lentzos calls upon the international community to face the monster head on – let’s discuss how to address biological research that pushes the boundary of defense into offense. “To accomplish any of this, we have to be able to both characterize and evaluate biological research with high misuse potential. This is exceptionally difficult to do, and continues to elude both the international community and national policymakers.” Lentzos points to the horsepox synthesis experiment as a good example of the failures that occurred along the way and that ultimately, risk-benefit analysis is the wrong approach to biosecurity review. “Good security rests not on evaluating risks and benefits, but rather on managing uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance—sometimes even situations where we don’t know what we don’t know. Standard risk-benefit calculations are the wrong approach to evaluating biological research with high misuse potential.”

HHS Large-scale Exercise Moving Highly Infectious Patients
How do you transport a highly-infectious patient? The care of Ebola patients in the United States during the 2014/2015 outbreak highlighted the challenges of moving such patients to regional treatment centers. HHS sponsored a large-scale exercise that took place this week, with a hot-wash today. “The exercise focuses on moving seven people acting as patients with Ebola symptoms in different regions of the country. The patients, including one pediatric patient, first present themselves at one of the following healthcare facilities: CHI St. Luke’s Health-The Woodlands Hospital in The Woodlands, Texas; Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, South Carolina; Norman Regional Hospital in Norman, Oklahoma; St. Alphonsus Regional Medical Center in Boise, Idaho, and St. Luke’s Regional Medical Center in Boise, Idaho.At each facility, healthcare workers will collect and ship samples for diagnostic tests to state laboratories, which in turn will practice running the necessary laboratory tests to diagnose the patients with Ebola. As part of the exercise, each patient will receive a positive diagnosis. Using appropriate isolation techniques and personal protective equipment, health care workers then must take steps to have six of the patients transported by air to designated Regional Ebola Treatment Centers. These patients will be placed into mobile biocontainment units for these flights. The pediatric patient will be placed into protective equipment and transported by ground ambulance.” The drills will also involve several airports, which include LAX, Charleston International, etc.

NASEM Bio, Chem, and Health Security Luncheon: April
Don’t miss the National Academies-hosted lunch today from noon to 1:30PM EDT. “April’s event features features George Korch, Senior Science Advisor to the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) in the Department of Health and Human Services and Dana Perkins, Senior Science Advisor in ASPR’s Office of Policy and Planning. Dr. Korch will discuss recent developments and ASPR strategic priorities in support of the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE). Dr. Perkins will talk about implementation of the recommendations arising from the Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel (FESAP) and current activities for 2018. This event is free and open to the public, but you must register to attend. This event will not be webcast, and a summary will not be provided after the fact, so please register to attend in person if you are interested! A light lunch and beverages will be provided for all attendees.”

Cyberbiosecurity – A New Way To Protect The Bioeconomy and Gene Editing for Good
How can we better ensure cybersecurity and biosecurity? Researchers are bringing forth this emerging hybrid field that we should be giving more attention to. Life sciences and biotech are heavily engrained in cyber systems. Consider 3-D printing, personalized genomics, medical labs and surgical robots, etc.  “We propose ‘Cyberbiosecurity’ as an emerging hybridized discipline at the interface of cybersecurity, cyber-physical security and biosecurity. Initially, we define this term as ‘understanding the vulnerabilities to unwanted surveillance, intrusions, and malicious and harmful activities which can occur within or at the interfaces of comingled life and medical sciences, cyber, cyber-physical, supply chain and infrastructure systems, and developing and instituting measures to prevent, protect against, mitigate, investigate and attribute such threats as it pertains to security, competitiveness and resilience’.” Promoting this field and strengthening educational strategies is key to inform people on cyberbiosecurity and ensure a trajectory that can be supported. How do we move cyberbiosecurity forward though? “Academia, industry, government or non-profits (including policy, regulatory and legal experts) need to begin to learn to communicate with and educate each other, harmoniously identify and develop priorities, opportunities and specify ‘next steps.’ A major opportunity exists right now to propose a unified structure and common vernacular. Lastly, while definition and assemblage of Cyberbiosecurity is occurring, national or international strategies should be pursued to harmonize the emerging enterprise and foster measurable value, success and sustainability.” As the talks surrounding cyberbiosecurity grow, it’s hard not to consider some of the technologies we’re discussing and their potential. Bill Gates recently wrote for Foreign Affairs regarding the good that CRISPR could do. “the next decade, gene editing could help humanity overcome some of the biggest and most persistent challenges in global health and development. The technology is making it much easier for scientists to discover better diagnostics, treatments, and other tools to fight diseases that still kill and disable millions of people every year, primarily the poor. It is also accelerating research that could help end extreme poverty by enabling millions of farmers in the developing world to grow crops and raise livestock that are more productive, more nutritious, and hardier. New technologies are often met with skepticism. But if the world is to continue the remarkable progress of the past few decades, it is vital that scientists, subject to safety and ethics guidelines, be encouraged to continue taking advantage of such promising tools as CRISPR.” Gates points to several avenues for good – feeding the world, ending malaria, etc. He also notes though that there are legitimate questions regarding the potential for misuse and risks, and that regulations for genetic engineering are decades old and need revision to remain applicable. Part of the process for truly utilizing CRISPR is also to responsibly assess risks and communicate openly.

3MT Competition 
The George Mason University 3-Minute Thesis competition took place this past weekend and we’d like to congratulate Biodefense PhD student Chris Brown on his participation in this exciting event! He was one of ten finalists who competed to explain their dissertation to a non-specialist audience in 3 minutes. Chris described his dissertation regarding protecting critical workers against emerging infectious diseases – “Many different types of workers, including those who provide essential services the rest of us frequently depend on, are at risk of exposure to emerging infectious diseases that spread through the general population. Although many factors play into these types of workers being exposed on the job, protective gear—equipment like gloves, gowns, goggles, and respirators—is an essential part of infection prevention programs aimed at keeping workers healthy. During recent outbreaks, the public health enterprise has tended toward reinventing guidelines for each new infectious disease we face. That can lead to confusion about what guidelines for worker protection should be followed, as well as delays in implementing protective measures as science works to understand the disease agent and its transmission mechanisms. Pivoting toward a system based on worker exposures associated with various job tasks instead of one built around accurately characterizing transmission routes, my research offers a guideline for protective gear that is applicable to a wide range of diseases and that can be used as soon as outbreaks begin. It serves as an off-the-shelf solution for worker protection until empirical evidence supports using disease-specific infection prevention practices.”

Stories You May Have Missed:

  • In Pictures: Decades of Navy Efforts To Combat Malaria – “Malaria is ranked by the Department of Defense as the number one infectious disease threat to military personnel deployed to areas where malaria is endemic. This includes countries spanning the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including most of sub-Saharan Africa and larger regions of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania, central Asia, the Middle East, Central and South America and the Caribbean.”

Thank you for reading the Pandora Report. If you would like to share any biodefense news, events, or stories, please contact our Editor Saskia Popescu (biodefense@gmu.edu) or via Twitter: @PandoraReport

Who Owns Smallpox?: The Nagoya Protocol and Smallpox Virus Retention

Overview by: Morasa Shaker, GMU Biodefense graduate student

Who Owns Smallpox?: The Nagoya Protocol and Smallpox Virus Retention
By Center for the Study of WMD
Spotlight Speaker: Michelle Rourke

It is more than likely that most people would not be opposed to efforts conserving the critically endangered Borneo elephant found on the island of Borneo in Sabah, or the Radiated Tortoise near extinction on the island of Madagascar. However, it would take a lot more convincing to reach a unanimous consensus that we should conserve a fatal virus. While the case can be made that endangered species pose an intrinsic value to the world’s genetic diversity, it is has proven less feasible to make the same case for a virus, specifically the variola virus—the causative agent of smallpox. Nevertheless, Michelle Rourke, a Fulbright scholar at Georgetown University’s O’Neill Institute for Domestic and Global Health Law, led an in-depth educational seminar organized by the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction to support that very case—the smallpox virus is worthy of our conservation efforts.

This discussion, based on her article “Never Mind the Science, Here’s the Convention on Biological Diversity: Viral Sovereignty in the Smallpox Destruction Debate,” published in the Journal of Law and Medicine, addressed the smallpox virus retention controversy that has ensued since the disease was declared eradicated in in 1980. Rourke, a PhD candidate at Griffith Law School in Nathan, Australia, found it increasingly more difficult to access virus samples for research purposes while studying both dengue viruses and Ross River virus. These major hindrances in her studies served as the context for her research on the international law around ‘who owns virus samples’ and then using those principles of international law and extending them to a specific case: Who owns the smallpox stocks maintained in the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the United States in Atlanta, GA and in Koltsovo, Russia? Continue reading “Who Owns Smallpox?: The Nagoya Protocol and Smallpox Virus Retention”

Pandora Report 4.6.2018

Are You Prepared For the Next Pandemic?
Attend the GMU biodefense workshop on pandemics, bioterrorism, and global health security from July 18-20 to learn about pandemic preparedness, vaccine production, health security, and more!  From anthrax to Zika, we’re covering all things biodefense. Register before May 1stand you’ll even get an early-bird discount!  

Recounting the Anthrax Attacks
Wanting a new book for your biodefense book club? Look no further than Scott Decker’s account of the Amerithrax attacks in 2001. One of the chief scientific lead investigators, Decker provides a first hand look into the investigative process and innovative forensics that were used. “Decker provides the first inside look at how the investigation was conducted, highlighting dramatic turning points as the case progressed until its final solution. Join FBI agents as they race against terror and the ultimate insider threat—a decorated government scientist releasing powders of deadly anthrax. Walk in the steps of these dedicated officers while they pursue numerous forensic leads before more letters can be sent until finally they confront a psychotic killer.” This is a great account of one of the largest FBI investigations in the past two decades, the science behind it, and what it was like from the inside of Amerithrax.

 Russia Proposes Joint Investigation Into Salisbury Attack
As if it couldn’t get more uncomfortable…tensions are running high after a meeting of the Organization of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) between London and the Kremlin. “Russia had demanded the emergency gathering of the OPCW’s top body in The Hague, after being blamed by the UK Government for the poisoning of ex-spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia.” Following this meeting, the UK delegation to the OPCW tweeted “Russia’s proposal for a joint, UK/Russian investigation into the Salisbury incident is perverse. It is a diversionary tactic, and yet more disinformation designed to evade the questions the Russian authorities must answer.” In response, Russian officials are pushing back and stating that their position is “fact-driven” and supported by 14 other nations.

GAO Report on Ebola Recovery & USAID Funds
The 2014/2015 Ebola outbreak was not only devastating, but also severely financially impacting. Response efforts alone cost billions, but what about recovery? USAID (US Agency for International Development) was given the task of supporting recovery efforts in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone however, their fiscal responsibility is being called into question. A new GAO report found that USAID was provided with $1.6 billion for Ebola recovery, of which $411.6 million was obligated for 131 recovery projects. “As of September 2017, USAID had completed 62 of its 131 planned Ebola recovery projects, had 65 projects that were ongoing, and had 4 planned projects that it had not yet started. Of the 62 completed projects, USAID had completed 39 within original time frames and budgeted costs and extended 23. Of the 65 ongoing projects, USAID expected to implement 46 within original time frames and costs, but had extended 19. USAID extended projects, in part, to complete host-government actions, hire staff, finalize project activities, and continue and expand food assistance.” The GAO report found several discrepancies in the data between USAID and its contractors. “In addition, as of December 2017 USAID has not ensured that the contractor has a complete and accurate inventory, which it said is also useful for informing and improving its ability to respond to future global health emergencies. The GAO said it looked at the contractor’s evaluation plan and found some incomplete or unclear elements, which have since been addressed by USAID and the contractor. The report also recommended that the USAID administrator ensure that a complete and accurate inventory of Ebola recovery project is compiled for ongoing evaluations.”

Enhancing Global Health Security Through Biosecurity and Engagement Programs 
The National Academics of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) will be hosting this event April 23rd (12:30-5:30pm) and April 24th (9am-5pm) at the Keck Center of NASEM. “For over two decades, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) has endeavored to reduce the threat posed by especially dangerous pathogens and related materials and expertise, as well as other emerging infectious disease risks. Through collaboration with other U.S. government agencies and international partners, CBEP identifies and addresses gaps in human and animal public health systems, enhance biosafety and biosecurity standards and procedures, and strengthens the ability of human and animal public health laboratories to detect, diagnose, and report outbreaks of infectious disease. Recently, CBEP collaboration has increased with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), enabling CBEP to advance its security goals across the GHSA countries. Recognizing that it must coordinate with a host of domestic and international agencies and organizations, CBEP has requested a consensus study to be conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAESM) to engage key partners of biological and health-security support, and to assist in articulating a vision for a coherent and harmonized set of programs that align with the larger DTRA, DOD, and USG missions. The overall objectives of the NASEM study are to help CBEP and its sister programs to be as effective as possible while ensuring that critical opportunities are not inadvertently missed.”

 ProMed April Fool’s
If you’re a subscriber to the International Society for Infectious Disease’s ProMed email alerts, you may have come across this little gem on Monday. Little did people realize, the source from the Scotland Sunday Herald was a satirical article. Regarding Anthrax Island in the UK and a possible purchase- “A group of Russian oligarchs is bidding to buy Gruinard Island off the north west coast of Scotland.” “One British source said: ‘If Gruinard had an active volcano under which they could build a lair, replete with shark tank, lasers and dozens of goons in uniform, then this move would make sense. As Gruinard is basically a contaminated hell-hole where we once bombed sheep to death with bio-weapons in the hope of doing the same to Germans, then I cannot for the life of me understand what these oligarchs would want with the place.’ A Kremlin source said: ‘Why should a group of shadowy billionaires not buy up your land of Scotch and haggis? To raise questions about this is typical of lick-spittle imperialist lackeys who see conspiracies by Russia at every turn.’ When asked how anyone could survive on an island contaminated with anthrax, the source initially said that Russia ‘had years of experience with this type of thing’, before adding: ‘You cannot report that. We didn’t say that’.” ProMed issued an alert the following day, after it was notified by readers that the Scottish Herald article was in fact, an annual April Fool’s joke. Who says we don’t have fun in biodefense?

CARB-X Specific Diagnostics Award
A novel partnership may help the battle against antimicrobial resistance. A new $1.7 million award to Specific Diagnostics will help support the company’s antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), which would significantly help early screening and rapid diagnostics, as well as lowering costs. “CARB-X funding will support the development and testing of Specific’s product, which is designed to quickly detect the emitted volatile molecules that are the first sign of bacterial growth in the blood and to determine which antibiotic is most suited to kill the bacteria. Rapid diagnostics provide quick answers to doctors and can take the guesswork out of treatment decisions in the first critical few hours and days of illness, reducing the chance of life-threatening sepsis and other urgent complications of blood infections. Currently, it can take days of laboratory testing to diagnose a lethal bacterial infection in the bloodstream. Faster diagnosis will enable medical staff to treat the patient quickly with appropriate antibiotics.”

NextGen Happy Hour
Looking to meet other people who are passionate about global health security? Next Generation Global Health Security Network is hosting a happy hour at Penn Commons (700 6th St NW, Washington, DC 20001) on April 26th at 5pm. This is a great opportunity to meet other NextGen members, the 2018 Next Generation Global Health Security Proteges, and other health security colleagues. Please confirm your attendance by April 20th by emailing nextgenghsa@gmail.com.

CDC Makes Gains in AMR Struggle
The CDC is reporting containment of new multidrug-resistant organisms in their latest MMWR. Utilizing data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) regarding infections, researchers calculated changes in annual proportion of specific organisms that were highly resistant (CRE and ESBL). “The percentage of ESBL phenotype Enterobacteriaceae decreased by 2% per year (risk ratio [RR] = 0.98, p<0.001); by comparison, the CRE percentage decreased by 15% per year (RR = 0.85, p<0.01). From January to September 2017, carbapenemase testing was performed for 4,442 CRE and 1,334 CRPA isolates; 32% and 1.9%, respectively, were carbapenemase producers. In response, 1,489 screening tests were performed to identify asymptomatic carriers; 171 (11%) were positive.” The new strategy the CDC is relying on (and unveiled in 2017) involves rapid detection, on-site infection control assessments, screening of exposed contacts to identify asymptomatic colonization, coordination of the response among facilities, and continuing these interventions until transmission has been controlled. “The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae infections that were CRE remained lower and decreased more over time than the proportion that were ESBL phenotype. This difference might be explained by the more directed control efforts implemented to slow transmission of CRE than those applied for ESBL-producing strains. Increased detection and aggressive early response to emerging antibiotic resistance threats have the potential to slow further spread.”

Prepare For Pandemics – Reauthorize the Preparedness Act
The CDC’s elite team of disease detectives, the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), is one of our greatest tools against microbial threats, so why do we keep cutting funding? The EIS program was initially established in the 1950s, when biological weapons programs were at trending and smallpox was not yet eradicated. EIS officers are deployed to public health events, and that doesn’t just mean infectious diseases, but can include natural disasters as well. “Over the last decade, however, cuts in funding for hospital and public health programs have diminished resources and capacities to identify and contain infectious disease outbreaks. Rising costs of graduate medical education, combined with disparities between public sector and private salaries for physicians have resulted in fewer physicians applying to the EIS fellowship program. While CDC once had the authority to offer student loan repayment to EIS fellows (as the National Health Service Corps and the National Institutes of Health and do for clinicians in underserved areas and scientists), CDC’s authority expired in 2002.” This can be challenging though as EIS fellows serve two years and repayment requires three years of service. In response to these budgetary cuts, Congress could, within the reauthorization of the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA), “reinstate CDC’s loan repayment authority and conform the commitment to CDC employment to the term of current fellowship programs.” This would encourage and better support the development of more EIS officers, as they are vital to global health security, but also a critical component to public health after their service is completed.

Stories You May Have Missed:

  • One Health Day 2018 Promotional Launch– November 3rd is the official day we celebrate global One Health Day, and three global partners are launching promotional activities to make sure we get the word out. “Anyone, from academia to government to corporate to private individuals can plan and implement a One Health Day Event which can be organized any time of the year and does not have to fall right on 3 November (unless participating in the student events competition). The global One Health Day Events webpage and map provides an impressive account of registered One Health Day events. Online registration is free of charge and yields special benefits: promotion on the One Health Day website, free use of the One Health Day logo and other materials and –anew benefit in 2018 – the chance for a surprise visit by a renowned One Health leader at selected One Health Day events.”
  • Department of Health and Human Services FY2019 Budget Request – “This report provides information about the FY2019 budget request for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The report begins by reviewing the department’s mission and structure. Next, the report offers a brief explanation of the conventions used for the FY2018 estimates and FY2019 request levels in the budget documents released by the HHS and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The report also discusses the concept of the HHS budget as a whole, in comparison to how funding is provided to HHS through the annual appropriations process. The report concludes with a breakdown of the HHS request by agency, along with additional HHS resources that provide further information on the request. A table of CRS key policy staff is included at the end of the report.”

Thank you for reading the Pandora Report. If you would like to share any biodefense news, events, or stories, please contact our Editor Saskia Popescu (biodefense@gmu.edu) or via Twitter: @PandoraReport

Pandora Report 3.30.2018

Happy Friday! On March 26th, we celebrated the anniversary of the BWC entering into force in 1975! While it was initially ratified by 22 countries, the BWC now has 180 States Parties.

Antimicrobial Resistance – The Troublesome Truth
AMR isn’t that flashy and it doesn’t require the kind of PPE or laboratories that might lend itself to eye-catching photographs. AMR may not be the kind of biological threat that people think of when they consider pandemics, but one thing it undeniable is… is a growing threat of international proportion. A recent Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences shed some light on a pretty horrific truth – in over 76 countries, antibiotic use has risen by 65% in the last 16 years and it’s fueled by economic growth. “In this study, we analyzed the trends and drivers of antibiotic consumption from 2000 to 2015 in 76 countries and projected total global antibiotic consumption through 2030. Between 2000 and 2015, antibiotic consumption, expressed in defined daily doses (DDD), increased 65% (21.1–34.8 billion DDDs), and the antibiotic consumption rate increased 39% (11.3–15.7 DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day). The increase was driven by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where rising consumption was correlated with gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) growth (P = 0.004).” High-income countries had modest antibiotic consumption increases, but there was no correlation with GDPPC. “Global antibiotic use rose by 65% from 2000 through 2015, while the antibiotic consumption rate increased by 39%.” The positive association of growing antimicrobial consumption and GDP is a scary notion. Researchers suggest that this relationship may be due to increasing capabilities to afford such medications. Not only does AMR have a substantial cost in terms of morbidity and mortality, but it also carries a hefty financial burden. A new study found that AMR has a price tag of $2 billion a year in the United States and costs an additional $1,400 for each infection in terms of medical treatment. These expenditures are due to increasing costs of inpatient treatments that are necessary when they have failed to respond to initial antibiotic treatment(s). Imagine how much the care for the UK’s first case of high-level resistant gonorrhea costs.  Fighting these infections is increasing challenging though, as AMR crosses several industries (agriculture, medicine, etc.) but from just the medical standpoint, it poses unique obstacles. Prescribing habits are always the first be addressed, as a new study even found that a significant proportion of antibiotics given to children are unnecessary. “Nearly a third of hospitalized children are receiving antibiotics to prevent bacterial infections rather than to treat them, and in many cases are receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics. The authors of the study say this high rate of prophylactic prescribing in pediatric patients and frequent use of broad-spectrum agents suggests a clear overuse of antibiotics in this population and underscores the need for pediatric-specific antibiotic stewardship programs.” Prescribing practices are one issue, but Maryn McKenna recently drew attention to the role patients have in driving physicians to overprescribe for fear of bad online reviews. “Some health care workers and researchers are beginning to talk about an uncomfortable explanation: Doctors feel pressured by what patients may say about them afterward. The fear of bad patient-satisfaction scores, or negative reviews on online sites, may be creating a ‘Yelp effect’ that drives doctors to provide care that patients don’t actually need.” Just these handful of examples underscore the complexity of the clash against antimicrobial resistance. To fight the battle of the resistant bug, we need all hands on deck. A new release from APIC and SHEA called out the importance of infection prevention and control programs in antibiotic stewardship efforts. “According to the paper, when AS programs are implemented alongside IPC programs, they are more effective than AS measures alone, verifying that a well-functioning IPC program is fundamental to the success of an AS strategy. ’It is important that all clinicians depend on evidence-based IPC interventions to reduce demand for antimicrobial agents by preventing infections from occurring in the first place, and making every effort to prevent transmission when they do’.” This is a single piece of the puzzle when it comes to reducing AMR and we all play a vital role. Just another reason why antimicrobial resistance is an underrated biological threat.

NBACC Funding Restored
The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is no longer in immediate jeopardy as the federal omnibus spending bill that was released on Wednesday evening provided full funding for the Fort Detrick laboratory. “The bill fully restores funding for federal laboratories the Trump administration proposed to close, including continued operational costs of $44.3 million for the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC). The Fort Detrick facility includes two high-level laboratories that handle federal select agents and toxins, including the Ebola virus, ricin and avian influenza.” Within NBACC, there is the National Bioforensic Analysis Center, which aids in the processing of evidence surrounding biological events, and the National Biological Threat Characterization Center, which seeks to study the complexities of biological threats.

 Summer Workshop – Are You Registered Yet?
From July 18-20, you can attend a workshop on all things health security – from pandemic flu to DIY genome editing, and all the outbreaks in between. Are you prepared to respond to the next pandemic? Attend our workshop and you’ll not only learn about how the U.S. has worked to better prepare, but also what future threats may look like. From anthrax to Zika, we’re covering all things biodefense. Register before May 1st and you’ll even get an early-bird discount!  

ABSA 61st Annual Biological Safety Conference Call for Papers                          You are now able to submit proposals for ABSA’s 61st Annual Biological Safety Conference. The conference will take place October 12-17, 2018 in Charleston, South Carolina. We anticipate having 650 attendees and 80 commercial exhibits. The pre-conference courses will take place Friday, October 12 to Sunday, October 14. The conference presentations will take place Monday, October 15 to Wednesday, October 17. The Call for Papers submission deadline is March 30, 2018 at 12 (Noon) pm CDT. 2018 Call for Papers Submission Site

GMU Biodefense Student Awarded ASIS National Capital Chapter Scholarship
We’re proud to announce that GMU Biodefense MS student Mariam Awad has been selected to receive the American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) Chapter scholarship! Mariam will receive the award at the Chapter’s Annual Scholarship Night on April 11th. ASIS is the world’s largest membership organization for security management professionals. Congrats to Mariam for all her hard work and showing off the dedication GMU biodefense study have to the field!

Global Health Security 2019 Conference 
The first international conference on global health security will be taking place from June 18-20 in Sydney, Australia. “The conference will: Bring together stakeholders working in global health security to measure progress, determine gaps, and identify new opportunities to enhance national, regional and global health security; Provide a venue for government officials and International Organizations to share policy developments, hear from the research community, and create a space for side meetings that advance the health security agenda; Establish and solidify a health security ‘community of practice’ and guiding principles; Through an open call for abstracts, highlight work from partners around the world, bringing cutting edge, evidence-based research to the community; Provide an opportunity for students to showcase their research; Consider creating a professional association for global health security; and Develop and endorse a ‘Sydney Statement’ on global health security.” They also have a call for abstracts on April 27th “We are at a critical juncture in the field of global health security and it is appropriate to organize the community around a set of common principles, goals, and objectives. Like the London Declaration for Neglected Tropical Diseases or the Oslo Ministerial Declaration on global health, this Conference aims to bring together the global health security community to agree on a set of principles to guide the field and set priorities. The Conference themes will address the following topics.”

First Responder Safety
Dr. Robert Kadlec, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) highlighted the importance of protecting Americans from threats like biological weapons. “It is imperative for first responders to keep themselves safe, so that in turn, they can provide care to those who are injured or ill,”. “For example, first responders should become familiar with the ASPR’s Primary Response Incident Scene Management (PRISM) series, which Kadlec said has been developed to provide evidence-based guidance on mass casualty disrobe and decontamination during a chemical incident. The PRISM guidance is based on scientific evidence gathered under a research program sponsored by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), which is overseen by ASPR. What many first responders may not realize is that studies during the BARDA research showed that disrobing and wiping skin with a dry cloth removes 99 percent of decontamination, Kadlec said.”

ASM Washington DC Branch & GMU Student Chapter Meeting
Join DC area microbiologists (professionals and students) for an exciting evening of microbiology, networking, and refreshments! Submit an abstract for an oral or poster presentation by March 30th! This even will be held at the GMU Fairfax campus (Exploratory Hall, Room 3301), on April 5th from 6:30-9pm.

Stories You May Have Missed:

  • Clade X Exercise – The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security will be hosting a tabletop exercise in Washington, D.C. in May. “The goal of this exercise (‘Clade X’) is to illustrate high-level strategic decisions and policies that the United States and the world will need to pursue in order to diminish the consequences of a severe pandemic. It will address a pressing current concern, present plausible solutions, and be experientially engaging. Clade X is designed for national decision-makers in the thematic biosecurity tradition of the Center’s two previous exercises, Dark Winter (2001) and Atlantic Storm (2005). The day-long exercise will simulate a series of Cabinet meetings among prominent players who previously occupied similar leadership positions in past Presidential administrations. Players will be presented with a scenario that highlights unresolved real-world policy issues that could be solved with sufficient political will and attention now and into the future.”
  • Rubber Ducky: Bacterial Deathtrap– Sure, this might be a little dramatic, but if you saw the inside of these beloved bath toys, you’d be pretty grossed out. “Swiss and American researchers counted the microbes swimming inside the toys and say the murky liquid released when ducks were squeezed contained ‘potentially pathogenic bacteria’ in four out of the five toys studied. The bacteria found included Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that is ‘often implicated in hospital-acquired infections’.”

Thank you for reading the Pandora Report. If you would like to share any biodefense news, events, or stories, please contact our Editor Saskia Popescu (biodefense@gmu.edu) or via Twitter: @PandoraReport

Pandora Report 3.23.2018

TGIF and Pandora Report day! Tomorrow is World TB Day, in which we celebrate the progress made to eradicate TB, but also recognize the work that still needs to be done. Did you know that 53 million lives were saved through effective TB diagnosis and treatment from 2000-2016? In 2016 alone, there were nearly 500,000 cases of multidrug-resistant TB around the world and it takes $2.3 billion a year to fill the resources needed for existing TB interventions. If you happen to be traveling by air anytime soon, make sure to read these tips from public health experts.

How Prepared Are You For the Next Pandemic? Summer Workshop on Pandemics, Bioterrorism, and Global Health Security
Three days filled with global health security and all things biodefense from anthrax to Zika – what more could you want in a workshop? Learn from the top minds in the field when it comes to pandemic preparedness, vaccine development, biosecurity, etc. Between the centennial of the 1918 influenza pandemic, the recent horsepox synthesis, and the lift on the gain-of-function research moratorium, these three days will be packed with exciting topics and discussions. From July 18-20th, come get your biodefense on with us in Arlington, VA – registration prior to May 1st also gets an early bird discount!

Shining A Spotlight On Soviet Nerve Agents
A nerve agent attack in the UK has made the poison, Novichok, a household name, but also pointed a very large spotlight on Russia’s scientists and defense labs. “Few experts in the rarefied area of chemical weapons defense are willing—or able—to shed further light on them. Information about the Novichok nerve agents is classified, says one U.S. military scientist who, like other U.S. government scientists, declined to speak with Science.” Whatever the plan, this failed attempt for the quick deaths of Skripal and his daughter have left many questions about delivery of the agent and how this heavily guarded secret nerve agent found its way onto UK soil. An article from The Trench discusses the use of these nerve agents, formal accusations from the UK, and compliance of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). “The OPCW experts travel to the UK under Article VIII, 38(e), which qualifies their activity as a ‘Technical Assistance Visit’ to help with the evaluation of an unscheduled chemical (the Novichock agent) is not listed in any of the three schedules in the Annex on Chemicals).  They will likely visit the sites of investigation and collect their own samples (if for no other reason than to validate any laboratory samples they may receive), take all materials and documents related to the forensic investigation back to the Netherlands where the sample will be divided up and sent to two or more designated OPCW laboratories.” On Wednesday, Russian diplomatic and military officials reportedly accused the UK of hiding evidence in the investigation of the attack. “Speaking to a lecture hall of diplomats, Vladimir Yermakov, deputy head of the ministry’s department for non-proliferation, suggested that the UK was ‘hiding facts’ about the case that may later ‘disappear’.” British diplomat Emma Nottingham noted that “Russia has offered us so far no explanation of how this agent came to be used in the United Kingdom and no explanation as to why Russia has an undeclared chemical weapons programme in contravention of international law,”.

Pandemic Preparedness
“Are we prepared for the next pandemic?” Such a question pulls at the string of a much larger web that tends to leave many feeling unsettled. The scary truth is that we’re not ready. We know there will be a pandemic – history, science, and society, all tell us this. Encroachment on nature, increasing globalization and populations, and struggles against more frequent threats like seasonal flu and even antimicrobial resistance, all reveal a severe vulnerability to infectious diseases. Lessons from HIV, Ebola, and Zika, are just the latest and on the centennial of the 1918/1919 influenza pandemic, many hope that we learned from such events and can help prevent future ones. Predictions trickle across many sectors – loss of healthcare worker lives, financial and economic struggle, etc. “Such a pandemic could cause a global stock market crash that obliterates the livelihoods and savings of millions of survivors. ‘A severe and prolonged global pandemic could … hit global GDP by as much as 5-10% in the first year,’ noted the authors of the Bank of America/Merrill Lynch 2015 Global Pandemics Primer report. Oxford Economics has suggested that the cost of a global pandemic, including spillover across industry sectors, could be as great as $3.5tn – an impact far greater than the magnitude of the great financial crisis of 2008.” With funding for the GHSA in peril, the question of preparedness becomes even more relevant…and pessimistic. The tricky thing about infectious disease threats is that we’re not sure where the next one will come from. We have hints and sometimes we’ll get a whiff of which way the wind is blowing before the storm hits, but ultimately, there is so much we can’t predict. Given these challenges, prevention efforts, like those of the GHSA, should be seen as even more critical. Infectious disease prevention strategies are always a good return on an investment. It’s also the unexpected that impacts disease control and surveillance efforts. Local news is one that doesn’t often come to mind when considering epidemiology and infectious disease forecasting. “Epidemiologists rely on all kinds of data to detect the spread of disease, including reports from local and state agencies and social media. But local newspapers are critical to identifying outbreaks and forecasting their trajectories. ‘We rely very heavily on local news. And I think what this will probably mean is that there are going to be pockets of the U.S. where we’re just not going to have a particularly good signal anymore,’ said Majumder, a Ph.D. candidate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.”

GMU Biodefense MS Open House & PhD Information Session
Looking to earn a Masters or PhD in a field that’s at the nexus of foreign policy and public health? GMU Biodefense is just the place for that. We’re hosting two information sessions for our biodefense graduate degrees – the MS Open House is next Wednesday at 6:30pm (Arlington Campus) and the next PhD Information Session is on Wednesday, April 18th at 7pm, in Arlington, VA. These are great opportunities to hear from faculty and students in each biodefense program about not only the application process, but also the classes and what it’s like to study what you love!

CDC Selects New Director
Dr. Robert R. Redfield was just announced as the new director for the CDC. Redfield will take over for interim director Dr. Ann Schuchat, who many were hoping would take post. The new director has a background in HIV and is said to be a dedicated researcher and physician. Unfortunately, Redfield also comes with a rather novel history for CDC directors – he has never worked for a public health department. “Critics also point to a resume marred with controversy. In the 1990s, Redfield was accused of falsifying data about an experimental HIV vaccine he worked on. He was eventually cleared of those charges, but the data had to be corrected.” On Tuesday, Sen. Patty Murray (Wash.) raised concerns regarding his appointment, noting that, “This pattern of ethically and morally questionable behavior leads me to seriously question whether Dr. Redfield is qualified to be the federal government’s chief advocate and spokesman for public health.”

Brazil Calls for Country-Wide Yellow Fever Vaccination
Brazil has been battling a yellow fever outbreak since 2017 and vaccine shortages have only fueled the challenges of outbreak response. “Brazil announced yesterday that all citizens should be vaccinated against yellow fever. The country is currently experiencing a spike in cases in what has shaped up to become the largest yellow fever outbreak to hit the country since the 1940s.The Associated Press (AP) reported that Ricardo Barros, Brazil’s health minister, said all 27 of Brazil’s states will be targeted in a vaccination campaign that will aim to reach 78 million people by 2019. Before the announcement, the vaccine was recommended in all but four Brazilian states.”

Importance of GHSA
GMU Biodefense PhD student Saskia Popescu wants clinicians to understand the importance of the GHSA and why US investment is critical. “Like many components of public health and infectious disease, the importance of prevention is often forgotten until an outbreak occurs. Hospital preparedness and infection prevention were not necessarily ‘big ticket’ items in the United States until we had Ebola in Dallas, Texas, but it only takes 1 laboratory incident to remind us of the importance of biosecurity and biosafety.”

Food Defense Conference
The Food Protection and Defense Institute will be hosting this conference on May 22 & 24th in Minneapolis, MN. “As the food system is becoming ever more global, companies need to be prepared to protect not only their products but also their reputation. The Food Protection and Defense Institute will be hosting a 2-day Food Defense Certification Training Course on May 21 & 22, 2018 that will teach food industry professionals how to navigate basic food defense principles, recognize vulnerabilities, and create a tailored food defense plans.”

Stories You May Have Missed:

Thank you for reading the Pandora Report. If you would like to share any biodefense news, events, or stories, please contact our Editor Saskia Popescu (biodefense@gmu.edu) or via Twitter: @PandoraReport

Pandora Report 3.16.2018

Calling all owners of pet turtles – make sure you’re practicing some outstanding hand hygiene as there’s been a big Salmonella outbreak associated with the tiny reptiles.

Nerve Agent Attack in UK – Novichok
It’s been a whirlwind since the attempted murder of former Soviet spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter last week in Salisbury. It is now being reported that the Russian nerve agent “Novichok” was used. On Monday, British Prime Minister Theresa May spoke to MPs and said she would give Russia time to explain how they either lost control of the military-grade nerve agent or engaged in a direct attack on British soil. “The nerve agent was top secret back then, especially sensitive because the Soviet Union, under Mikhail Gorbachev, had renounced the use and production of chemical weapons. Its existence came to light thanks to the scruples of a brave scientist named Vil Mirzayanov, who had worked at the State Union Scientific Research Institute for Organic Chemistry and Technology. The institute was described by one of its top officials as ‘the leader in the technology of chemical destruction’.” Novichok is reportedly 5-8 times more toxic than the nerve agent VX and considered more sophisticated. You can read the joint statement from leaders of France, Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom here, in which they state that “This use of a military-grade nerve agent, of a type developed by Russia, constitutes the first offensive use of a nerve agent in Europe since the Second World War. It is an assault on UK sovereignty and any such use by a State party is a clear violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and a breach of international law. It threatens the security of us all.” The UK has also expelled 23 Russian diplomats in the wake of the attack.

Bill & Melinda Gates Discuss Bioweapons As Biggest Threat To Humanity
Melinda Gates recently spoke at South by Southwest this past weekend and underscored the vulnerability within the United States to bioterrorism. Both Melinda and Bill have repeatedly cited the vulnerability and seriousness of biothreats, regardless of origin, in our highly connected world. “As the two wrote in their recently released ‘Goalkeepers’ report, disease — both infectious and chronic — is the biggest public health threat the world faces in the next decade. And although Bill Gates said on a press call at the time that ‘you can be pretty hopeful there’ll be big progress’ on chronic disease, we are still unprepared to deal with the infectious variety.” While many are curious as to the reality of this threat, the truth is that infectious diseases are already causing significant damage – consider influenza, Ebola, or even antimicrobial resistance. These are naturally occurring events but there is also the risk of a laboratory incident or a nefarious actor releasing a bioweapon. Response and preparedness efforts are some of our biggest challenges. “In New York City’s hazard mitigation plan, the city indicates that a bioterror attack could have an impact on a similar scale as that of a nuclear weapon. And they say that the likelihood of bioterror attack is far greater.” Just another reason to invest in global health security efforts!

 Summer Workshop on Pandemics, Bioterrorism, and Global Health Security
Have you signed up for our workshop yet? From July 18-20th, you can engage with biodefense experts in the field and those on the front lines of global health security. Our workshop will not only cover pandemic preparedness and vaccine development (it’s the centennial of the 1918/1919 pandemic after all!), but also biosecurity in this age of DIY genome editing and the future of the GHSA.

The Missile Technology Control Regime at 30
A few weeks ago, the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies held an event on the Missile Technology Control Regime and two of GMU’s biodefense graduate students were able to attend and report back to us. Christopher Lien and Shauna Triplett have provided us with detailed accounts of the talks incase you missed the event. Lien notes that “A recurring theme in the discussion centered on the need for consensus within the nonproliferation community. Ambassador Piet de Klerk, former Chair of the MTCR, emphasized that one must maintain a realistic yet ambitious agenda when interfacing with both member states and non-member states. Learning where the ‘red lines’ are in each individual state’s case and crafting an appropriate plan of action lends itself to fostering a culture of consensus.” Triplett highlighted some of the successes and failures, noting that “The reflection of accomplishments also calls for the acknowledgement of shortcomings. The biggest concern for the regime is its inability to keep up with technology. Controls are harder to place on complicated weaponry and strategies have not become any simpler to achieve. The regime is faced with the task to update its objectives in order to meet these long-term challenges.”

Implementing the Global Health Security Agenda: Progress and Impact from U.S. Government Investments
The latest report has been released from USAID on the GHSA and U.S. support. As funding for global health security is being jeopardized but the threat of infectious diseases has not waned, the future of the GHSA and U.S. involvement is highly concerning. “In 2017, there were more than 25 reported public health emergencies in U.S.-assisted GHSA countries. Partner countries detected, led the response to, and contained outbreaks, including dengue fever in Burkina Faso and the Marburg virus in Uganda, by using the improved capacities built with the help of the United States and other GHSA partners. USAID’s broad-base development programs have helped to build capacity in countries to train the next generation of health care workers, strengthen community-based surveillance and improve long-term capabilities to prevent, detect and respond to outbreaks.” Within the report, you can find sections on U.S. government investments in building global health security capacities and examples of implementation across each action package. For example, within the Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) action package, one example was “In Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, about 38,000 health care workers, community health agents, and others who come in contact with patients were trained in infection prevention and control (IP ) standards and practices. In Sierra Leone alone, 303 health facilities received training and mentoring to improve IP and prevent the spread of AMR.” In the Real-Time Surveillance action package, “Vietnam piloted event-based surveillance with community engagement in detecting and reporting unusual health events and more than 100 local outbreaks were reported in the first six months as a result. This initial success lead to a plan for national scale-up in 2018.”

U.S. Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance Findings 
CDC surveillance efforts for AMR across several states have found some worrying incidence rates of multi-drug resistance infections. Joint efforts between the CDC and local health departments are a newer approach to not only understanding the burden of AMR within the United States, but also developing response capabilities. Currently, surveillance efforts are scattered, which means that a true understanding of the scope and magnitude of this complex biological burden is rather limited. The latest joint efforts “report that the overall annual incidence of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter baumannii is 1.2 cases per 100,000 persons, and that nearly all the cases were healthcare-associated. The incidence rate is lower than those reported for other invasive, healthcare-associated bacterial pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Clostridium difficile.” Interestingly, they found that 99% of patients had some exposure to a healthcare facility or to an indwelling device (catheter, central line, etc.).

Stories You May Have Missed:

  • One Health Commission Opportunities Bulletin Board – “The global One Health Community has long called for a mechanism to share and identify relevant educational, employment, and funding opportunities. In past years there have been challenges in making the world aware that the Commission is trying to help in this way, receiving announcement requests, getting them posted on the Opportunities webpage and included in One Health Happenings News Notes in a timely manner.
     Starting in 2018, we are trying a more interactive, honor system-driven, series of online One Health Opportunity Bulletin Boards that will include links to ongoing One Health educational programs. The global One Health Community is encouraged to both submit and review announcements here. (https://goo.gl/58raog).”
  • PLOS Disease Forecasting & Surveillance Channel– PLOS has a great new source for forecasting and surveillance research. You can find articles from syndromic approaches to examining viral agents among febrile patients, global influenza seasonality, and more.

Thank you for reading the Pandora Report. If you would like to share any biodefense news, events, or stories, please contact our Editor Saskia Popescu (biodefense@gmu.edu) or via Twitter: @PandoraReport

The Missile Technology Control Regime at 30

We’re please to provide an overview of this event from the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies on February 14, 2018, by two GMU biodefense graduate students – Christopher Lien and Shauna Triplett.

PART I – Christopher Lien
I had the pleasure of attending an in-depth discussion on the work of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), now celebrating its 30th year of operation. Emphasizing the MTCR’s decades of efforts in slowing the spread of unmanned systems designed to carry and deliver weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the discussion highlighted various topics of concern and challenges that face the nonproliferation community in today’s ever-evolving technological and political environment. I detail a few of the key talking points herein.

A recurring theme in the discussion centered on the need for consensus within the nonproliferation community. Ambassador Piet de Klerk, former Chair of the MTCR, emphasized that one must maintain a realistic yet ambitious agenda when interfacing with both member states and non-member states. Learning where the “red lines” are in each individual state’s case and crafting an appropriate plan of action lends itself to fostering a culture of consensus.

Richard Speier of the RAND Corporation provided a summary of the MTCR’s history, from its launch in 1987 up to the present day, and left us with some thoughts for the regime’s future. He briefly detailed the evolution of the definition of an MTCR Category 1 item[1] – complete rocket and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems capable of carrying a payload of at least 500 kilograms a distance of at least 300 kilometers. These items and their major subsystems, related technology and software, and even their dedicated production facilities are all subject to ‘strong presumption of denial’ of export. This 300-kg/500-km threshold becomes important again later on.

Several challenges inevitably present themselves with rapid innovations in missile technology. For example, satellite launch vehicles (SLVs) are inherently dual-use in that their technology can be used to carry valuable satellites into orbit while also being interchangeable with large ballistic missiles. Speier highlights the case of Brazil’s space program that, between the 1980s-1990s, concerned United States policy makers – the same solid fuel propellants used to launch satellites into geosynchronous orbit could also have been diverted toward the world’s largest solid fuel intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).

Michael Elleman, a Senior Fellow at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, usefully pointed out that too often SLV programs are equated with ICBM programs – to date no state has ever successfully converted an SLV into an ICBM. He maintains that space programs are not a shortcut to ICBM development and instead directed attention toward the need for countermeasures against newer threats such as hypersonic cruise missiles (HCMs) and penetration aids. Hypersonic missiles confound the MTCR 300/500 threshold since they can be effective solely with their kinetic energy for destructive power and oftentimes do not carry any payload. I asked Elleman what existing policies might be or already have been adapted to address this modern threat or if there is a perceived need for the creation of new policies. The encouraging response from both Elleman and Speier was that hypersonic technologies have not been overlooked and research has been conducted studying the methods of hindering hypersonic missile proliferation. Since HCMs rely on advanced propulsion methods such as turbofan engines or scramjets, export controls may be imposed on these engines and their components, fuels for hypersonic use, sensors and navigation items, and other systems used in developing hypersonic vehicles.[2]

Amid the rapid pace of innovations in drone technology and maneuverable re-entry vehicles, political tensions precluding comprehensive nonproliferation cooperation, and questions about the MTCR’s adaptability to these issues, how is the MTCR moving forward?

Today 35 nations strong, the MTCR continues facilitating intelligence sharing on proliferant programs and upholding bilateral cooperation among member states while seeking to establish productive relations with would-be members. Vann Van Diepen, former Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Security and Nonproliferation, delivered the event’s keynote address focusing on several key accomplishments of the MTCR in its 30 years of operation. The regime deals not only with tangible items subject to export control but also intangibles such as the sharing of technological information. Its control lists have served as models for those of other states, bolstering the environment of consensus among the nonproliferation community. Van Diepen states that the MTCR is now beyond just export control – it is now a full-fledged nonproliferation regime. The MTCR is not a panacea to the proliferation issue, but the regime and its mission continue to be needed.

[1] The Cat. 1 & Cat. 2 definitions are found at #13 in the FAQ section, I as unable to figure out how to anchor the hyperlink to go to that specific spot in the webpage.

[2] These recommended items for export control taken from the document that I hyperlinked in “hypersonic cruise missiles”;
Richard Speier, George Nacouzi, Carrie Lee, and Richard Moore, “Hypersonic Missile Proliferation: Hindering the Spread of a New Class of Weapons,” RAND Corporation (2017), p. 45.

PART II –Shauna Triplett
The Missile Technology Control Regime is wrapping up its 30th year anniversary. This time calls for reflection on the MTCR’s achievements and shortcomings. At this year’s MTCR 30th Year of Operations event at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, MTCR experts reflected on the past three decades. Here are five takeaways:

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
            Since its founding in 1987, the MTCR has been expanded its regime to 35 nations. Vann Van Diepen, the U.S. Department of States’ Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, outlined the MTCR’s key accomplishments.  He notes these accomplishments as the ability to place successful controls on pace, a strong focus on terrorism, and effective catch-all controls. He notes that the absence of the MTCR would have led to a stronger future for Iran and North Korea’s nuclear intentions. There is no doubt that the MTCR has been necessary over these past 30 years.

SHORTCOMINGS
            The reflection of accomplishments also calls for the acknowledgement of shortcomings. The biggest concern for the regime is its inability to keep up with technology. Controls are harder to place on complicated weaponry and strategies have not become any simpler to achieve. The regime is faced with the task to update its objectives in order to meet these long-term challenges.

ARE REGIMES FOR THE HAVES AND HAVE-NOTS?
            Ambassador Piet de Klerk of the Netherlands highlighted the stigma that regimes are for the “haves and have-nots”. Looking at the MTCR’s membership would make one believe that it is an elite group for developed nations. Although 35 members are included in the MTCR, it should be noted that only three nations have been added this century. The need for expansion is important now more than ever. In this era of nuclear threat, the MTCR must have a stronger presence and focus on expansion. Although there is a concern of free riders, this is the also the time for the regime to consider whether it is promoting an environment of the “haves and have-nots’. Or is this even a concern to be addressed?

THE ROLE OF DRONES
            Rachel Stohl, the Managing Director of the Henry L. Stimson Center, raised the concern of a drone’s place in the MTCR. UADs are expanding massively and Stohl acknowledged that the framework of the MTCR does not fit well with drones due to new technology capabilities. Although Stohl is skeptical of the future of drones in the MTCR, this anniversary is a time to reflect on how to adapt the regime to the expanding technologies of drone capabilities.

FUTURE
            The MTCR may be wrapping up its 30th year, but there’s more work to be done. Richard Speier of the RAND Corporation, notes that the MTCR’s focus should be directed towards DPRK and Iran while being cautious in regard to Turkey, Syria, the Arabian Peninsula, Taiwan, and Japan/Australia. Elleman acknowledges the need to overcome guidance challenges that counter-measures such as maneuverable re-entry vehicles face. He also advises the MTCR to find a strategy that would place controls on short range cruse missiles as well strategize the utilization of high altitude endurance UAVs.

There is no doubt that the MTCR is still necessary, but the regime must be prepared for an increase in challenges. There should be a re-focus on the regimes’ objectives, a better attempt to place controls on new technology, and an expansion of membership. With the increasing threat of nuclear warfare, the anniversary and need for reflection could not have come at a more appropriate time. Now, the MTCR must commit to action.

Pandora Report 3.9.2018

Nerve agent attacks, horsepox synthesis, and funding global health security, oh my! On top of all the biodefense news we’ve got in store for you this week, we’re also thoroughly excited to announce the 2018 summer workshop on pandemics, bioterrorism, and global health security.

Summer Workshop on Pandemics, Bioterrorism, and Global Health Security – From Anthrax to Zika
We’re delighted to release the dates for the summer workshop on all things global health security. The recent publication of the horsepox synthesis study, uncertain future of U.S. investment in global health security, and a severe flu season, are just a handful of the topics we’ll be addressing in this three-day workshop from July 18-20, 2018. Did I mention that it’s also the centennial of the 1918/1919 pandemic? We face unprecedented microbial challenges in this modern age – whether it be the risk of nefarious actors misusing genome editing, antimicrobial resistance, or the speed at which a disease can circumvent the globe. Our workshop is the perfect place to learn from experts in the field and meet with a diverse group of fellow biodefense gurus. If you register before May 1st or are a returning member or GMU alum, you can even get a discount! From anthrax to Zika, our July workshop is the place to be for all things health security.

 The Herculean Challenge of Assessing the De Novo Synthesis of Horsepox 
Nine-headed Hydra or cleaning out the Augean stables? None of these tasks were particularly easy, and neither is truly assessing the risks and benefits of the recent horsepox synthesis. Two of the latest articles analyzing the implications of this research have been released this week in mSphere.  In the editorial, Michael J. Imperiale points to the increased attention on DURC and the debate surrounding the benefits of a new vaccine versus the potential for a nefarious actor to misuse the process. “The two articles posted today come from Gregory Koblentz at George Mason University, who argues that this work was poorly justified on two fronts, scientifically and commercially, and from Diane DiEuliis and Gigi Gronvall from National Defense University and the Center for Health Security at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, respectively, who discuss this study in the larger context of how the risks and benefits of dual use research are assessed and managed. (mSphere asked the leadership of Tonix to submit a manuscript, but we received no response.)” Koblentz first underlines the weak scientific foundation for the claim that the horespox synthesis aids in the development of a new smallpox MCM. He states that the “combination of questionable benefits and known risks of this dual use research raises serious questions about the wisdom of undertaking research that could be used to recreate variola virus.” Within his commentary, Koblentz addresses the scientific and commercial rationale for synthesizing the virus as well as the weak scientific basis for its use as a safer alternative for human vaccine use and the lack of demand for a new smallpox vaccine. “At the heart of the dual use research dilemma is the need to assess and balance the benefits and risks presented by an experiment or line of research. This is a difficult task given the largely theoretical risks posed by unknown adversaries in the future and the enticing yet uncertain benefits that the research may eventually yield. Indeed, measuring risks and benefits and weighing them can be a wicked problem that defies simple or straightforward conclusions. The difficulty of the task, however, does not excuse researchers, funders, or journal editors from trying to do so. While the benefits of biotechnology and life sciences research are beyond question, we should not take for granted the benefits of specific experiments or avenues of dual use research.” In their counterpoint article, Diane DiEuliis and Gigi Kwik Gronvall emphasize that the horsepox researchers went through due biosecurity diligence at their research institution, the importance of utilizing an analytical framework for assessing the risks and benefits of DURC, and discuss “relevant components of biosecurity policy and the biodefense enterprise (including the acquisition of medical countermeasures) in the United States.” DiEuliis and Kwik Gronvall point to the horespox synthesis (and the controversy) as an opportunity to evaluate how dual-use risks should be handled, the complicated approach to stockpiling MCM, and “the challenges of forecasting risks and benefits from a particular scientific discovery or technology”. They highlight the National Academies Imperiale report framework for evaluating the capacity for technology to be misused, which includes factors like weighing the use of the technology itself against consequence management, etc. They also note three issues that have been raised by the horespox paper that require additional consideration – “The decision of what to do with a technology or research area that is dual use cannot be black or white, MCMs cannot be a check-the-box procedure for the USG, The synthesis of and booting up of a pathogen should serve as strategic warning that current biosecurity controls and preparedness are insufficient.” DiEuliis and Kwik Gronvall note that “Now that the work has been published, the authors examined the research according to the Imperiale report framework, which aims to provide a systematic way to evaluate biosecurity risks. We again found that while dual use information would benefit highly experienced actors who are intent on misuse, the recreation of smallpox virus may require additional research and development steps than have been described in this publication: smallpox virus is less similar to horsepox virus than horsepox virus is to vaccinia virus, the tools to recreate horsepox virus were originally developed for vaccinia virus, and they might require additional troubleshooting for re-creation of smallpox virus.”

NTI Launches GHS Video: Act Now to Protect U.S. Investment in Global Health Security
The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) has launched a new video urging Congress to act now and ensure funding for global health security. Dr. Elizabeth Cameron, NTI VP, global biological policy and programs, is spear-heading the endeavor to turn the tides and ensure sustained funding for global biodefense. “Without sufficient funding of $208 million a year for the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and $172 million a year at the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), we weaken the global network of protection, increase risk to American lives, and threaten investments from other governments and the private sector. Urge Congress to act now to provide sustained funding for global biodefense.” Cameron notes that “in response to the devastating Ebola crisis of 2014, the United States Congress authorized over $900 million in supplemental funding to support the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) for five years to help countries prepare for and address biological threats. This critical funding runs out at the end of fiscal year 2019, placing up to 80% of our global health security efforts abroad – offices, personnel, and programs – at risk. Also at risk?  U.S. health security and extended biodefenses. Without sufficient funding of $208.2 million a year for the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and $172.5 million a year at the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), we weaken the global network of protection, increase risk to American lives, and threaten investments from other governments and the private sector.”

Ominous Biosecurity Trends Under Putin
If you ever needed a reminder of the importance of investing in global health security, this just might provide that cold dose of reality. The latest book from Raymond Zilinskas and Philippe Mauger, Biosecurity in Putin’s Russia, assesses Russia’s actions regarding DURC and biosecurity measures. “They investigate — solely through open sources — the current Russian position. They especially dig into issues such as ‘genetic weapons’ (bioweapons aimed at damaging DNA, potentially of specific individuals or groups) and biodefence research. Their underlying intention throughout seems to be to examine the likelihood that the Russian government is itself willing to engage in banned activities related to biowarfare agents. The book thus becomes a technical-scientific detective story.” This is an in-depth analysis by two top biological weapons specialists – definitely worth the read!

A Nerve Agent, An Ex-Russian Spy, And A Bench in the U.K. 
Speaking of Russia…..a former Russian spy was recently found alongside his daughter in critical condition on a bench in Salisbury. The former spy, Sergi Skripal, and his daughter, Yulia, were found slumped over on Sunday and in desperate need of medical attention. It is now being reported that they were poisoned by a nerve agent, which has raised the suspicion that this was an assassination attempt. “The development forces the British government to confront the possibility that once again, an attack on British soil was carried out by the government of President Vladimir V. Putin, which Western intelligence officials say has, with alarming frequency, ordered the killing of people who have crossed it. Prime Minister Theresa May and her cabinet ministers held a meeting on Wednesday of the government’s emergency security committee to discuss the matter. ‘This is being treated as a major incident involving attempted murder by administration of a nerve agent,’ said Mark Rowley, Britain’s chief police official for counterterrorism and international security.” Twenty-one people are also being treated for exposure to the nerve agent in connection to the attack.

Netflix Documentary – Rajneesh Salad Bar Bioterrorism
Get ready for some Netflix and nerdom on March 16th as the documentary on the largest bioterrorist attack in the United States is released. “In 1984, more than 700 people in The Dalles, OR, contracted Salmonella infections after followers of Rajneesh sprinkled the pathogen on salad bar ingredients in 10 local restaurants. The action was an effort to swing the results of an election.” Don’t miss out on the biosecurity twitter activity during a virtual viewing party – @pandorareport!

#NoImpunity: Will The Newest International Effort to Stop Chemical Attacks in Syria Succeed?
How can we stop the use of chemical weapons if there is no authority on attribution? GMU professor Gregory Koblentz is delving into the latest strategy to hold the Assad regime accountable for their continued use of chemical weapons. Between Russian vetoes that halt OPCW efforts and the death of the Joint Investigation Mechanism, many worry that the lack of punishment will encourage further CW use by the Assad regime. “To fill this gap in the global anti-chemical weapon architecture, France launched an international initiative in January to pressure the Assad regime to halt its use of chemical weapons. The Partnership Against Impunity, which uses the hashtag #NoImpunity on Twitter, is a group of 25 countries motivated by the twin goals of deterring future chemical attacks and bringing to justice the perpetrators of past attacks.” Sure, the sanctions by some of these countries are ultimately more symbolic than behavior-changing, but they are now infusing a dose of public shaming into the mix. “First, by curating a public database that lists all of the front companies and procurement agents used by the SSRC, the Partnership Against Impunity makes it easier for other countries and companies around the world to avoid doing business with Syria’s chemical weapons program. While sanctioning these shadowy companies and middlemen is like playing ‘whack-a-mole,’ it is an essential element of preventing Syria from rebuilding the capabilities that the OPCW destroyed after Syria joined the Chemical Weapons Convention.” The Partnership Against Impunity is also laying “the groundwork for future prosecutions of military officers and government officials who engaged in war crimes” and establishing a “concrete manifestation of the noble goal enshrined in the preamble of the Chemical Weapons Convention ‘to exclude completely the possibility of the use of chemical weapons’.”

 Assessing CRISPR – The Dread And the Awe
Genome editing is a hot topic – both in terms of future possibilities, but also potential peril. GMU biodefense professor Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley and doctoral student Saskia Popescu are teaming up to review two new books on this gene editing technology. First, A Crack in Creation by Jennifer Doudna, one of CRISPR’s creators, who discusses the revolutionary marvel with a mixture of hope and dread. “Doudna became aware of this paradox soon after publishing the seminal 2012 article that announced her discovery. She was surprised and delighted by the technology’s rapid spread and its use in a variety of fields, yet some applications—such as the use of Crispr to edit human embryos, as performed for the first time by Chinese scientists in 2015—made her uneasy about the future of the technology. Unscrupulous individuals’ interest in using Crispr for pure profit made her uneasy as well.” Next, Modern Prometheus by computational biologist and freelance writer, Jim Kozubek. “He ponders the power of genetic manipulation as a gateway to the dehumanization of medicine and the objectification of human beings. Kozubek draws comparisons with ‘Jurassic Park’ and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein to pose larger questions about genetic engineering—and also to point out that, though people are fascinated with technological advances, they often neglect to consider technologies’ implications, notably on people themselves.”

The U.S. and Global Health Security At A Time of Transition
The Kaiser Family Foundation will be hosting this free event on Monday, March 12th from 2-3:30pm EDT at the Kaiser Family Foundation Barbara Jordan Conference Center in Washington, D.C. This event will seek to explore the future of U.S. global health security efforts, what role the U.S. will play in the future of the GHSA, and more through a panel of experts. “Jen Kates, Vice President and Director of Global Health and HIV Policy, will provide opening remarks, and Anne Schuchat, Acting Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), will give a keynote address on U.S. global health security efforts. Josh Michaud, Associate Director of Global Health Policy at the Kaiser Family Foundation, will moderate a follow up discussion with Beth Cameron, Vice President for Global Biological Policy and Programs at the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); Rebecca Katz, Associate Professor and Co-Director of the Center for Global Health Science and Security at Georgetown University; Nancy Knight,Director of the Division of Global Health Protection at CDC; and J. Stephen Morrison, Senior Vice President and Director of the CSIS Global Health Policy Center.”

New Paradigms for Global Health: Building Capacity through Science and Technology Partnerships
The American Association for the Advancement of Science and Hitachi Ltd. will be hosting this event on March 21st from 11:30am-12:30pm at the AAS headquarters in New York City. “Why are science and technology partnerships — and science diplomacy — more critical to global health than ever before? Jimmy Kolker, former U.S. ambassador to Uganda and to Burkina Faso and the Obama Administration’s chief HHS health diplomat, offers a practitioner’s perspective on new ways of integrating and advancing global health science, security, and assistance. Public-private and technical partnerships can enable the best experts to build sustainable capacity in low- and middle-income countries, strengthening global health science, policy, systems, and delivery.”

Stories You May Have Missed:

  • The Troubling Truth About Medicine’s Supply Chain –  Maryn McKenna (author of Big Chicken and all around global health guru) is lifting back the curtain on the painful reality that is America’s hospital supply chains. While not something the public generally considers, it’s something we need to start fixing. “Missing IV bags and missing pharmaceuticals seem like unrelated problems, a temporary disruption layered on top of a longstanding problem. But in fact, they are unavailable for the same reason. The United States has allowed the manufacturing of most of its drugs and medical devices to drift offshore, at the end of long, thin supply chains.”

Thank you for reading the Pandora Report. If you would like to share any biodefense news, events, or stories, please contact our Editor Saskia Popescu (biodefense@gmu.edu) or via Twitter: @PandoraReport