The ghostbusters had proton packs and now researchers have DNA-analyzing smartphone attachments to help diagnose disease and fight antimicrobial resistance.
Doomsday Clock Moved 30 Seconds Closer to Midnight
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists announced that the clock setting was moved on Wednesday. This is the closest it has been to midnight since 1953 and now includes threats like climate change, cyberthreats, and biological weapons. The board has been critical of President Trump and noted that, “Over the course of 2016, the global security landscape darkened as the international community failed to come effectively to grips with humanity’s most pressing existential threats, nuclear weapons and climate change … This already-threatening world situation was the backdrop for a rise in strident nationalism worldwide in 2016, including in a U.S. presidential campaign during which the eventual victor, Donald Trump, made disturbing comments about the use and proliferation of nuclear weapons and expressed disbelief in the overwhelming scientific consensus on climate change.” You can get a better glimpse of the clock and its components here.
Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review of the List of Select Agents and Toxins and Enhanced Biosafety Requirements- Final Rule
The CDC has released the final recommendations for select agent biosafety requirements in accordance with the 2002 Bioterrorism Response Act. The 2016 recommended changes included the removal of six biological agents, “add provisions to address the inactivation of select agents, add specific provisions to the section of the regulations addressing biosafety, and clarify regulatory language concerning security, training, incident response, and records.” However, as of January 19th, 2017, HHS and USDA have published parallel amendments to the federal regulation for select agents and toxins. Following their review, HHS decided not to finalize the proposed changes to the list of select agents. They did however decide “to finalize provisions to address toxin permissible limits and the inactivation of select agents; to finalize specific provisions to the section of the regulations addressing biosafety; and to clarify regulatory language concerning security, training, incident response, and records”. The amendments are set to take effect 30 days from the date of publication.
Biodefense World Summit
Don’t miss out on the Biodefense World Summit in Alexandria, VA from June 27-28th! This will be the third summit in order to “bring together leaders from government, academia, and industry for compelling discussions and comprehensive coverage on pathogen detection, sample prep technologies, point-of-care, and biosurveillance. Across the four-track event, attendees can expect exceptional networking opportunities in the exhibit hall, across panel discussions, and shared case studies with members of the biodefense community from technology providers to policy makers.” Make sure you don’t miss out on GMU Biodefense PhD student, Mary Sproull’s presentation, “Recent Advances in Radiation Biodosimetry for Partial and Total Body Exposures” during the tools and technologies at the point-of-care session!
Missing Russian Smallpox Researcher
This may sound like the plot of a horror movie (or Sum of All Fears), but the reality may be just as worrisome. Professor and Russian microbiologist, Ilya Drozdov has been put on Interpol’s wanted list. Having knowledge of Russia’s historical bioweapons program means that Dr. Drozdov’s disappearance has authorities worrying he may have gone abroad. Dr. Drozdov was head of Vector for five years, which means he has considerable knowledge in both the offensive program and the recent work regarding plague vaccines and HIV cures. “After quitting the institute, he returned to his native Saratov, but has now vanished. It is now confirmed that last month the 63 year old scientist – who needed top vetting clearance to lead Vector – was put on the Interpol wanted list, indicating fears he has gone abroad. He is accused by state investigators of misappropriating some 2 million roubles – then worth around $55,000, while his tenure also led to an outflow of staff unhappy at his management style. A criminal case was filed against him in 2014, and a Novosibirsk court has now approved his arrest in absentia, said Elena Chernyayeva, a regional deputy prosecutor. The microbiologist allegedly used the cash to purchase an apartment. There is no suggestion he has taken secrets abroad, but the Interpol alert indicates the Russian authorities have lost track of his whereabouts. There was criticism of him at Vector for the poor pay of its expert researchers, and ‘conflicts’.”
Bill Gates Talks Bioterrorism
Last week we looked into the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), which aims to head off worldwide outbreaks through the development and stockpiling of vaccines. CEPI has received massive financial support and one sponsor in particular is the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill Gates recently warned, at the recent World Economic Forum, that there is a true gap in bioterrorism preparedness. “What preparedness will look like for intentionally caused things, that needs to be discussed,” he said. “It’s very hard to rate the probability of bioterrorism, but the potential damage is very, very huge. I think an epidemic, either naturally caused or intentionally caused, is the most likely thing to cause, say, 10,000 excess deaths,” Gates said. “He voiced the same concern in March during a Reddit Ask Me Anything session: ‘The problem of how we prevent a small group of terrorists using nuclear or biological means to kill millions is something I worry about,’ he wrote.” Other biotech gurus like Sam Altman noted that the 2011 H5N1 gain-of-function controversies have opened their eyes to synthetic viruses as a form of terrorism or bioerror.
Health Security Memos to the New Administration and Congress
Despite a recent move, researchers at the Center for Health Security aren’t taking a break when it comes to global health security. They’ve recently written a series of commentaries for the new administration regarding facts and assessments that are critical for the world of health security. The memos range from healthcare preparedness to improving biosurveillance, partnering with communities to foster trust, communication of new disease threats, and much more.
FDA’s New Farm Antibiotics Policy – Is It Enough?
The new FDA Guidance for Industry (GFI) #213 is what some would consider a victory, while others are calling it a mediocre milestone at best. The new policy looks to reduce the usage of antibiotics in agriculture by requiring veterinary oversight. That’s right, prior to GFI #231, farmers could go to their local feed stores and buy penicillin and tetracycline over the counter to add to feed and water to promote growth. “Under GFI #213, which was first announced in 2013 and has taken 3 years to fully implement, pharmaceutical companies have been asked to voluntarily remove production purposes (such as growth promotion) from the labels of all medically important antibiotics used in food production. All affected companies have done so as of Jan 3, the FDA says. In addition, the guidelines require veterinary oversight for the continued use of these drugs for disease prevention and control in herds and flocks. From now on, all antibiotics used in water will require a prescription from a licensed veterinarian, and those used in feed will need a veterinary feed directive (VFD).” Sure, this is a move in the right direction, but are we ensuring the quality of veterinary oversight and truly changing the culture within farming to support responsible antibiotic usage?
Outbreak Alert: Seoul Virus in Illinois and Wisconsin Rat-Breeding Facilities
While we’ve been busy with the inauguration and Zika virus, there’s been an emerging outbreak creeping up in Illinois and Wisconsin. Eight people have been infected with Seoul virus after working in several rat-breeding facilities across the two states. While not commonly found in the U.S., this is the first known outbreak associated with pet rats. “A home-based rodent breeder in Wisconsin was hospitalized in December 2016 with fever, headache, and other symptoms. CDC tested a blood specimen and confirmed that the infection was caused by Seoul virus, a member of the Hantavirus family of rodent-borne viruses. A close family member who also worked with rodents also tested positive for Seoul virus. Both people have recovered. A follow-up investigation at several rat breeders that supplied the initial patient’s rats revealed an additional six cases of Seoul virus at two Illinois rat breeding facilities.” While related to Hantavirus, Seoul virus presents with more mild symptoms.
Stories You May Have Missed:
- Post-Ebola reforms: ample analysis and inadequate action– Check out a new analysis on WHO response and global reaction to the Ebola outbreak. “Given the importance of improving our ability to battle current (Zika, yellow fever, etc) and future outbreaks of infectious disease, we examined seven major reports and identified areas of consensus on action. We then assessed what progress has been made and what can be done to address the gaps. The seven reports were selected on the following criteria: scope (tackling problems beyond a single organization, country, or sector); diverse authorship (defined by country of origin, organizational affiliation, area of expertise, and gender); and public availability (excluding internal reviews).”
- Using the lessons of economics to stop global pandemics before they start -Larry Summers is looking to economics to calculate the likely future impact of pandemics on the global economy. By combining the mortality cost and losses in income, he and fellow researchers found that “it was on the same range as that of climate change- although at the lower end of the possible scale. A moderately severe pandemic, of the kind that occurs every few decades, would knock 4-5% off global output. The “ultra scenario”—a pandemic similar in virulence to the flu of 1918—would raise that to 12%, reducing GNI in some developing countries by more than half.”
- How Prepared is the U.S. for Avian Influenza?– Many are pointing to an impending avian influenza outbreak and questioning how well American response measures will work. “On Jan 9, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) confirmed that a wild mallard duck in Montana had died from H5N2, a highly pathogenic avian flu strain that in 2015 affected farms in 15 states and led to the culling of more than 43 million poultry, with an estimated $3.3 billion in economic losses. ‘This confirmed H5N2 in a wild mallard duck in Montana keeps us on high alert,’ said Donna Karlsons, a public affairs specialist with the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). ‘We know the disease is out there and serves as a great reminder for constant biosecurity vigilance. There is never a good time to ease up on biosecurity, and it remains our greatest asset to protect against avian influenza’.”