Happy Friday! We hope you had a lovely week as the summer winds down. If you’re considering reading the latest Richard Preston book, you might want to check out this review.
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law
Volume 10 is now available, which “offers both a legal and scientific perspective on current issues concerning bioterrorism, public health and safety, and national security. Edited by an international board of leading scholars from all the continents, our journal is aware that bioterrorism related issues are global problems. Our goal is to develop a unique international community of legal scholars, scientists and policy experts who will address current issues in these fields.” Within this latest volume, you can find articles on vaccine exemptions, the looming threat of agroterrorism, the history of tuberculosis quarantine, and much more.
The Oversecuritization of Global Health: Changing the Terms of Debate
“Linking health and security has become a mainstream approach to health policy issues over the past two decades. So much so that the discourse of global health security has become close to synonymous with global health, their meanings being considered almost interchangeable. While the debates surrounding the health–security nexus vary in levels of analysis from the global to the national to the individual, this article argues that the consideration of health as a security issue, and the ensuing path dependencies, have shifted in three ways. First, the concept has been broadened to the extent that a multitude of health issues (and others) are constructed as threats to health security. Second, securitizing health has moved beyond a rhetorical device to include the direct involvement of the security sector. Third, the performance of health security has become a security threat in itself. These considerations, the article argues, alter the remit of the global health security narrative; the global health community needs to recognize this shift and adapt its use of security-focused policies accordingly.”
The Soldiers Who Took On Yellow Fever
Battling Aedes aegypti to help combat Yellow Fever isn’t for the faint of heart and here’s insight into how it went down. “The Yellow Fever Board, led by then-Major Walter Reed and Jesse Lazear, had convened at the Army’s Columbia Barracks in Cuba, at the height of a deadly yellow fever epidemic ravaging Cuba in 1900. Today, we know that yellow fever spreads when Aedes aegypti mosquitoes bite infected people, then carry the virus to the next person they bite. But in 1900, American doctors weren’t sure if the virus spread through infected blood, or through traces of infected material on bedding. Volunteer soldiers subjected themselves to living in yellow fever survivor filth, and later to mosquito bite tests, to advance understanding of disease transmission.”
Lyme Disease – It’s Not A Bioweapon…
In case you missed the several other times we mentioned how Lyme disease isn’t an escaped bioweapon….here’s another breakdown. “One of the most important characteristics of a biowarfare agent is its ability to quickly disable target soldiers. The bacteria that cause Lyme disease are not in this category. Many of the agents that biowarfare research has focused on are transmitted by ticks, mosquitoes, or other arthropods: plague, tularemia, Q fever, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Eastern equine encephalitis or Russian spring summer encephalitis. In all of them, the early disease is very debilitating, and the fatality rate can be great; 30 percent of Eastern equine encephalitis cases die. Epidemic typhus killed 3 million people during World War I. Lyme disease does make some people very sick but many have just a flu-like illness that their immune system fends off. Untreated cases may subsequently develop arthritis or neurological issues. The disease is rarely lethal. Lyme has a weeklong incubation period – too slow for an effective bioweapon. And, even though European physicians had described cases of Lyme disease in the first half of the 20th century, the cause had not been identified. There was no way the military could have manipulated it because they did not know what ‘it’ was.”
Why We Need More Open-Source Epidemiological Tools
“A newer tool, though, is changing the game in outbreak response and modeling. The Spatiotemporal Epidemiologic Modeler (STEM) is an open-source software that is available to the global health community. This is not just a rigid instrument against disease, in that it is not pre-set to a specific disease or environment and has the flexibility for hundreds of variations. ‘STEM has been used to study variations in transmission of seasonal influenza in Israel by strains; evaluate social distancing measures taken to curb the H1N1 epidemic in Mexico City; study measles outbreaks in part of London and inform local policy on immunization; and gain insights into H7N9 avian influenza transmission in China. A multi-strain dengue fever model explored the roles of the mosquito vector, cross-strain immunity, and antibody response in the frequency of dengue outbreaks,’ the authors of a briefing in Health Security wrote.
The latest version was just released this year and allows users to really refine it based on their needs. From Ebola in West Africa to Salmonella in Germany, it has been used by agencies and universities alike. In fact, one of the authors, Nereyda Sevilla, PhD, used it for her doctoral dissertation work to model SARS, H1N1, and pneumonic plague in air travel in order to assess its role as a vector in the transmission of infectious diseases. What makes STEM so helpful to users is not only that it’s open access, but also its wide application and historical usage in tracking multi-strain vector-borne diseases, human behavioral responses, earth science data, pathogens from farm to fork, and so much more.”
Ebola Outbreak Updates
This week, cases of Ebola virus disease continued to rise in the DRC, as 6 were reported over 4 days, bringing to the outbreak to 3,043 cases and 2,035 deaths. The epidemiological investigation into the 9-year-old girl who died from Ebola in Uganda last week is also pointing to a potential nosocomial source for her infection. “The cases were confirmed during a weekend of unrest throughout the outbreak region, including Kalunguta, where a motorcycle was burned and several people clashed with local Ebola response agents who were attempting to perform a safe and dignified burial for a patient. According to translated media reports, the conflict began when family members protested the declaration of the deceased as an Ebola patient. In the latest update from the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) African regional office, the WHO says the new ‘hot spot’ status of Kalunguta is of highly worrisome. ‘A review of key performance indicators at week 34 (19-25 August 2019) shows, in comparison with the previous week, an increase in the number of new confirmed cases, a decrease in the proportion of deaths on notification, persistence of the low proportion of new confirmed cases listed as contacts and an extension of affected health areas,’ the WHO said. ‘All these, along with the addition of Kalunguta as a hot spot area, are of grave concern’.”
Restricting the Use of Riot-Control Chemicals
Mounting discussions to restrict the use of riot-control chemicals have come in the face of use in Hong Kong and the US-Mexico border. “Police forces use these riot-control chemicals to clear crowds or to stop fighting. In theory, exposure should be minimal — a group should disperse within minutes to avoid the gas. The line between civilian and military applications of these chemical agents is a fine one. Rules governing their use are confused. Reference books and training materials continue to cite toxicology studies from the 1950s. And those were done on animals and soldiers, not the public. The chemicals involved are mainly CS (2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile, the primary component of tear gas) and OC (oleoresin capsicum, a chilli-pepper extract used in pepper spray). Tear gases were developed to harass the enemy or to clear bunkers and tunnels in conflicts such as the Vietnam War, as alternatives to deadly force. Pepper sprays came into use in the 1980s for police and self-defence use after being developed as an animal repellent in the 1960s.”
Identifying and Responding to Newly Resistant Infections
Infection preventionist and GMU biodefense doctoral alum Saskia Popescu discusses the frontlines of antimicrobial resistance surveillance and response. “In the world of growing antimicrobial resistance, the identification of patients with highly resistant (or newly resistant) infections is critical. Because this is an emerging challenge, national and international surveillance efforts are still being strengthened to tackle all the avenues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The frontline identification of these newly resistant infections is critical though and surveillance is not only the first step in identifying and understanding the problem, but it also allows us to properly isolate the patient to avoid further transmission. Bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasingly developing resistance to antimicrobials and can easily be spread through health care facilities. Klebsiella bacteria are also showing a relatively new resistance to the carbapenem class of antibiotics. Typically, these bacteria cause infections like pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and even urinary tract. A recent publication in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) described experiences surrounding the identification of a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate that had 3 carbapenem-resistant genes (CR-Kp) and was related to urinary procedures.”
Surgical Masks vs. N95s
In the battle against influenza, there can only be one..”In outpatient settings, surgical masks and more expensive respirator masks appear to be equally effective for protecting health workers against flu and other respiratory viruses, according to a new study based on data over four flu seasons. Earlier studies comparing the two forms of respiratory protection have shown mixed results. Uncertainty over which is better has been a sticking point in forming recommendations on how best to protect healthcare workers, especially during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. And the new findings come in the wake of 2018 research that showed that flu likely also spreads by small aerosol particles, not just by respiratory droplets. Tighter-fitting N95 masks are designed to filter at least 95% of airborne particles, but some healthcare workers find them less comfortable than surgical masks, leading to problems with adherence. During the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, some hospitals and clinics had problems restocking their N95 supplies.”
GMU Research Team Sequence Komodo Dragon Genome
“George Mason University researchers Monique van Hoek and Barney Bishop and their collaborators have released their findings on sequencing the Komodo dragon genome, revealing multiple clusters of antimicrobial peptide genes that could prove instrumental in the fight against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Their work, which was published in the latest issue of BMC Genomics, identified key clusters of Komodo dragon antimicrobial peptide genes, which are protein-like molecules that contribute to the front line defense of its immune system. Komodo dragons are resilient reptiles with robust immune systems that regularly dine on dead and decaying flesh and whose saliva is known to be rich in bacteria.”
Stories You May Have Missed:
- Brooklyn Measles Outbreak Over – “Today the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed 19 new measles infections, raising the 2019 total to 1,234 cases in 31 states. One additional state has been affected since the CDC’s last update, but the number of active outbreaks has been reduced to four, down from six noted last week. As of Aug 29, 125 of measles case-patients had been hospitalized, and 65 reported having complications, including pneumonia and encephalitis, the CDC said. More than 75% of measles cases recorded in 2019 have come from two outbreaks among New York State’s Orthodox Jewish communities—one in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and one in Rockland County.”