Pandora Report: 6.4.2021

The Biden administration has released its fiscal year 2022 budget, which includes an increase of almost $1 billion for global health programs. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad remains in power. Register for the upcoming Pandemics and Global Health Security Workshop!

Biden’s FY22 Budget

The Biden administration released its fiscal year 2022 (FY22) budget, which includes an increase of almost $1 billion for global health programs. There is also a section of the budget that provides “discretionary funding for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) — the largest budget authority increase in nearly two decades — to restore capacity at the world’s pre-eminent public health agency.” In regard to the fight to end the COVID-19 pandemic, the budget provides $1 billion in foreign assistance to “establish Global Health Security Agenda capacity building programs in additional nations and increase investments in crosscutting research and viral discovery programs to detect and stamp out future infectious disease outbreaks.” In total, global health security funding is $905 million, a 376% above the FY21 enacted level. Funding for tuberculosis totals $319 million and funding for malaria totals $770 million, both matching the FY21 enacted levels. Funding for neglected tropical diseases totals $103 million, also matching the FY21 enacted level. KFF outlines a detailed comparison of funding for global health efforts between FY22 and FY21 here.

Ahead of the budget release, KFF analyzed the historical trends in US funding for global health, finding that funding through regular appropriations increased by almost $10 billion since FY 2001. Most of this increase is due to the establishment of President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund, and the President’s Malaria Initiative. Over the last decade, the US has offered nearly $12 billion in emergency supplemental funding for infectious diseases, but  90% of that funding was provided in the last year in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

‘A Perilous Point’: Global Agencies Call for $50 Billion Investment to Combat COVID-19

A statement from the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) urges investment of up to $50 billion to “boost manufacturing capacity and supplies and ease trade rules to ensure equitable distribution of vaccines and other medical products.” Additional funding to COVAX, the global vaccine distribution initiative, “could be widened to 40% and, possibly 60% by the first half of 2022.” COVAX has administered nearly 2.4 billion doses across 92 low and middle-income countries. But, an additional $8.3 billion is needed as the current resources would only cover about 30% of their populations through early 2022. According to an IMF analysis, “added investment could generate an estimated $9 trillion in additional global output by 2025.”

It’s No Joke: Borat Turns to Johns Hopkins Scientist for Serious COVID Vaccine Talk

Dr. Jennifer Nuzzo, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, shares her vaccine expertise for British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen’s latest moviefilm. One of the topics Nuzzo addressed was the conspiracy theory that the COVID-19 vaccines are being used as vehicles to insert microchips into people. She clarifies, “a microchip wouldn’t fit through the tiny needle used to inject COVID-19 vaccines.” Nuzzo is among the distinguished faculty for the upcoming Pandemics and Global Health Security Workshop hosted by the Biodefense Graduate Program.

Operation Warp Speed and Beyond Toolkit

The Operation Warp Speed and Beyond Toolkit has been developed for cleared and uncleared industry partners working on Operation Warp Speed (OWS). It provides OWS partners with the resources they need to better protect the important work they are doing. While some of these resources were developed with cleared contractors participating in the National Industrial Security Program (NISP) in mind, the guidance and information provided apply to any industry partner working on sensitive information that is sought after by an adversary, regardless of classification level or designation.

On September 10, 2020, Operation Warp Speed industry partners were invited to participate in a webinar that provided an overview of insider risk, cybersecurity, counterintelligence threats, and industrial security best practices. In case you were unable to attend the live webinar, you may view a recording of the webinar here.

WHA74: Strengthen Global Preparedness for Health Emergencies

The 74th World Health Assembly (WHA) concluded on 31 May, and it focused on ending the COVID-19 pandemic and how to prevent the next one. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), called for beginning negotiations this year on an international treaty to enhance pandemic preparedness. Though such a treaty was not adopted at this year’s WHA, member states agreed to create a working group that would look at the benefits of a treaty, a convention, or an international agreement. In late November, the ministers from the WHO’s 194 member states are set to convene and decide whether or not to start such negotiations. To the dismay of many, the WHA did not adequately consider a very current and critical topic: “a plan to vaccinate the world and end vaccine inequity.” No resolution or strategy was put forward to achieve global equitable vaccination. Thomas Schwartz, executive secretary of Medicus Mundi International, stated, “Unfortunately, the WHA is still not [a] place for member state[s] to be challenged, and the full transparency, with all sessions being live webcast, does not provide the setup for critical self-reflection.” On a better note, the WHA did pass two resolutions “advocating for government support for the Gender Equal Health and Care Workforce Initiative to address gender inequities in the health and care workforce.”

One for All: An Updated Action Plan for Global COVID-19 Vaccination

The Rockefeller Foundation released a new report, One for All: An Updated Action Plan for Global Covid-19 Vaccination, that calls on the “G7 and other donors to step up so that COVAX closes its US$9.3 billion funding gap by June 2nd, allowing it to unlock an additional 1.8 billion doses of vaccine, enabling 92 low- and middle-income countries to vaccinate half their adult population.” The lack of equitable vaccine distribution leaves much of the global population unvaccinated, posing a threat to ending the pandemic. Thus far, about half of North Americans and over one-quarter of Europeans have been vaccinated, but only about 14% of South Americans, 5% of Asians, and 1.2% of Africans. Further, 80% of vaccines have been administered in high- and upper-middle income countries, leaving low-income countries vulnerable and unprotected. The report provides a 5-point action plan to scale equitable vaccination around the world: (1) share more sooner; (2) make more quicker; (3) build in the global South; (4) support delivery systems; and (5) close the financing gap. Dr. Rick Bright, Senior Vice President of Pandemic Prevention & Response at The Rockefeller Foundation, is among the contributors of this report. Bright is also among the distinguished faculty for the upcoming Pandemics and Global Health Security Workshop hosted by the Biodefense Graduate Program. Read the report here.

Event – Pandemics and Global Health Security Workshop

COVID-19 has exposed just how unprepared governments, corporations, and societies are for a global pandemic. While the SARS-CoV-2 virus is only the most recent threat to global health security, it will certainly not be the last. Threats to global health security continue to evolve due to the emergence of new infectious diseases, globalization, advances in science and technology, and the changing nature of conflict. Pandemics and Global Health Security is a three-day virtual, non-credit workshop designed to introduce participants to the challenges facing the world at the intersection of pandemic preparedness and response, public health, national security, and the life sciences. Over the course of three days, participants will discuss how the biology and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 contributed to the emergence of that virus as a global pandemic, lessons learned from Operation Warp Speed about the development of medical countermeasures, obstacles to hospital biopreparedness, challenges to science communication during a pandemic, the bioethics of resource allocation during a public health emergency, the future of global health security, and the role of science and technology in preventing and responding to pandemics. The workshop faculty are internationally recognized experts from the government, private sector, and academia who have been extensively involved in research and policy-making on public health, biodefense, and security issues. Live, interactive sessions will include Dr. Rick Bright, The Rockefeller Foundation; Dr. Nicholas G. Evans, University of Massachusetts-Lowell; Dr. Andrew Kilianski, Department of Defense; Dr. Gregory D. Koblentz, George Mason University; Dr. Jennifer Nuzzo, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security; Dr. Saskia Popescu, George Mason University; Dr. Angela L. Rasmussen, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre; and Jessica Malaty Rivera, COVID Tracking Project. The workshop is organized by the Biodefense Graduate Program at the Schar School of Policy and Government at George Mason University and will be held virtually on July 19-21, 2021. Each day will run from 9am to 12:30pm ET. Prior to June 18, the course fee is $400. Starting June 18, the course fee is $500. Register here.

The Assad Regime Continues

On Wednesday, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad voted to extend his rule, “casting his ballot in an ex-rebel bastion where a suspected chemical weapons attack in 2018 prompted Western air strikes.” Syria has been in a decade-long conflict that has killed hundreds of thousands of people and forced half of the country’s population from their homes, all under Assad’s regime. The election was held despite a peace process led by the United Nations that called for voting under international supervision. Unfortunately, this week’s vote will allow Assad seven more years in power, extending his family’s rule to nearly 60 years.

Last month, the members of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) voted to suspend Syria’s rights and privileges under the treaty. The CWC prohibits the use, production, and stockpiling of chemical weapons. The suspension is a “modest step” toward holding Syria accountable for its chemical weapons attacks and reinforcing the global prohibition against chemical weapons use. In 2013, Syrian forces deployed nerve gas on neighborhoods near Damascus, killing about 1,300 people. Unfortunately, the international responses to Syria’s atrocities have been lackluster. Despite the latest vote, the “Assad regime could continue to maintain, expand, and employ its illegal chemical weapons arsenal as a terror weapon against opposition forces and civilians.” A possible next step in the event that Syria does not comply with the CWC is to refer Syria to the UN Security Council (UNSC). Another option would be to “demand a challenge inspection in Syria pursuant to Article IX of the CWC to clarify outstanding inconsistencies with its stockpile declaration.”

WHO Gives Virus Variants New Names, Drawing from Greek Alphabet

The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a less technical method for naming the new variants of the novel coronavirus using the Greek alphabet. For example, B.1.1.7 is now Alpha. The tables below crafted by Bloomberg shows the new names for the variants of concern and the variants of interest.

Fall 2021 Courses in the Biodefense Graduate Program

If you are a Schar School student looking for another interesting class to take this fall, the Biodefense Graduate Program is offering two fascinating courses: Global Food Security (BIOD 726) with Philip Thomas and Building Health System Resilience (BIOD 610) with Dr. Saskia Popescu.

Global Food Security (BIOD 726) analyzes threats to food security globally including those related to climate change and environmental degradation; animal and plant diseases; access to clean water; agricultural terrorism; and antimicrobial resistance. It explores the national and global health, economic, social, and ethical impacts of these disruptive forces. The course also examines strategies for enhancing the security of the global food production and supply system.

Building Health System Resilience (BIOD 610) will provide students with a foundation in how healthcare systems prepare and respond to pandemics, disasters, and biological events. The ability of healthcare systems to respond to biological threats will have impacts at the community, national, and international levels. Health resilience in the United States is a particular challenge given multiple stakeholders, economic factors, and regulatory fragmentation. Students will review case studies, such as Ebola, Hurricane Katrina, 9/11, and COVID-19, to examine the unique challenges of building and sustaining the resilience of the American healthcare and its role in global health security.

Schar School Open House

You’re invited to attend a virtual open house to learn more about the Schar School of Policy and Government and our academic programs. The online session will provide an overview of our master’s degree programs and graduate certificate programs, student services, and admissions requirements. Attendees will be provided with an application fee waiver for the Fall 2021 graduate application. Biodefense applicants are eligible for funding from the Diane Davis Spencer Foundation Scholarship. The fall application deadline is July 15th. The Open House will be held virtually on 9 June at 6 PM EST. Register here.

BSL-4 Laboratories

Last week, Dr. Filippa Lentzos of King’s College London & Dr. Greg Koblentz of George Mason University launched, an interactive web-based map of global Biosafety Level-4 facilities and biorisk management policies. Lentzos shared that the aim of the project is to “increase public knowledge about Biosafety Level 4 labs, and importantly, to strengthen national and international virus management policies.” Regardless of the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of laboratory accidents rises as the number of laboratories in the world expands. The new map includes 59 laboratories, the majority of which are in Europe. Only 17 of the 23 countries that house BSL-4 laboratories have national biosafety associations or are members of international partnerships. The primary concern is that an accident could trigger the next pandemic.

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