By Erik Goepner
Recent reports suggest that IS has employed chlorine as a weapon. Though currently unconfirmed, these reports suggest that IS is looking to bolster its inventory of tactics, techniques and procedures. In so doing, they’ve gone old school.
IS’ first use of chlorine as a weapon may have been in September against Iraqi security forces and Shiite militias north of Baghdad. Reports indicate the chlorine was delivered via bombs. No one died, but approximately 40 reported difficulty breathing and heavy coughing. One source said IS had taken the chlorine from purification plants overtaken during their advance.
Additional reports suggest that IS employed toxic gas in Kobani on October 21. Patients reportedly sought medical care for trouble breathing, burning eyes, and blisters. A doctor on-scene ruled out chlorine as the cause, while assessing the injuries as consistent with exposure to an as-of-yet unidentified chemical. The Guardian noted, however, there was no consensus or confidence from experts regarding potential causes of these injuries.
Five days later, an Iraqi military commander said seven chlorine filled projectiles were fired into a residential area of Anbar province, though no casualties were reported.
According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), though, this is not new. The implementing body of the Chemical Weapons Convention reported chlorine was already used “systematically and repeatedly” in northern Syrian villages earlier this year. Western government officials assert Assad’s forces had employed the chlorine, though it is unclear if other groups may also have been responsible.
Historically, perhaps the most heinous and deadly precedent for chlorine-as-weapon comes from World War I, when the Germans dispersed 168 tons of chlorine during the Second Battle of Ypres in Belgium. Approximately half of the 10,000 allied soldiers in the affected area died. Two days later, chlorine was again used, killing an additional 1,000 Allied service members.
What might the future hold? The Nuclear Threat Initiative, writing in 2007 about chemical weapon fears in Iraq, noted that the worst industrial accident in history was the release of 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate at a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India. 3,000 were killed and more than 100,000 were injured. The author concluded that a “sufficiently large release of elemental chlorine may be capable of exacting a comparable toll, particularly if discharged in a highly populated civilian area.” However, the author also noted chlorine is typically ineffective against a “prepared adversary” because its visible color and potent odor announce its arrival and the effects of chlorine can be mitigated with “simple countermeasures,” such as gas masks or wet cloths placed across the nose and mouth.
Image Credit: Stripes